gwynhefar: (Default)
gazunder: (v) Of a house-buyer: to reduce the price offered to (a seller) for a property, especially shortly before exchange of contracts, threatening to withdraw if the new offer is not accepted; also, to swindle in this way.



pandanus: (n) 1. A plant of the genus Pandanus (family Pandanaceae), comprising trees and shrubs native to Malaysia, tropical Africa, and Australasia, distinguished by twisted stems with aerial roots, long, narrow, usually spiny leaves arranged in spiral tufts, and large, sometimes edible cone-like fruits. Also (in form Pandanus): the genus itself.
2. The fibre obtained from pandanus leaves; (also) material woven from this fibre.



anhedonia: (n) In Psychiatry: Inability to feel pleasure.



teratology: (n) 1. A discourse or narrative concerning prodigies; a marvellous tale, or collection of such tales.
2. In Biology: The study of monstrosities or abnormal formations in animals or plants.



adelphopoiia/adelphopoiesis: (n) A ceremony practiced at one time by various Christian churches to unite together two people of the same sex (normally men).



anamnesis: (n) 1. The recalling of things past; recollection, reminiscence.
2. In Liturgy: That part of the Eucharistic canon in which the sacrifice of Christ is recalled and pleaded.
3. In Medicine: Information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information (in this case, it is sometimes called heteroanamnesis), with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.



lignin: (n) In Chemistry: An organic substance, forming the essential part of woody fibre.



caisson: (n) In Military use: 1. A chest containing bombs or other explosives, to be buried and fired as a mine.
2. A chest containing ammunition; a wagon for conveying ammunition.
In Hydraulics: 3. A large watertight case or chest used in laying foundations of bridges, etc., in deep water.



adagio: 1. (adv) In Music: A direction for the musical time in which a piece is to be sung or played: Slowly; leisurely and gracefully.
2. (n) A slow movement in music; a piece of music in adagio time.
3. A dance or ballet movement in adagio time.
4. (adj) Of musical movement: Slow, leisurely.



organdy/organdie: 1. (n) A fine but stiff, translucent kind of muslin. Also as a count noun: (chiefly U.S.) a piece of this fabric; a dress made of organdy.
2. (adj) Of, relating to, or used in organdie; (in later use) especially made of organdie.



bombasine/bombazine: (n) 1. The down of the cotton-plant; raw cotton. (Also called bombase/bombace).
2. A twilled or corded dress-material, composed of silk and worsted; sometimes also of cotton and worsted, or of worsted alone. In black the material is much used in mourning.



grosgrain: (n) Any of various corded fabrics.



jacquard: (n) The surname of Joseph Marie Jacquard of Lyons, who, at the beginning of the 19th c., invented an apparatus to facilitate the weaving of figured fabrics in the loom, superseding the ruder heddle or heald appliance previously used. Hence many attrib. uses and combinations, as Jacquard apparatus, Jacquard attachment, Jacquard engine, Jacquard machine, Jacquard mechanism, applied to this apparatus; also Jacquard loom n. a loom fitted with this apparatus, for the weaving of figured fabrics; Jacquard fabric, Jacquard muslin, Jacquard stripes, etc., those woven or produced on the Jacquard loom; Jacquard-figured (adj)., Jacquard-weaving, etc.



heddle/heald: In Weaving: (in plural) The small cords (or in recent use, wires) through which the warp is passed in a loom after going through the reed, and by means of which the warp threads are separated into two sets so as to allow the passage of the shuttle bearing the weft.


gwynhefar: (Default)
orthogonal: (adj) 1. Designating a right angle; (also) having a right angle; right-angled; rectangular.
2. Relating to or involving right angles; at right angles (to something else).
3. In Mathematics: Of a linear transformation of a vector space: preserving lengths and angles; leaving unchanged the inner product of any two vectors.
4. Of a square matrix: representing an orthogonal transformation; such that the rows (and likewise the columns) are orthonormal when considered as vectors; equal to the inverse of its transpose.
5. Designating the group of all orthogonal matrices of a given order.
6. Of two vectors or functions: perpendicular; having an inner product equal to zero. Of a set of vectors or functions: such that the inner product of any two elements is zero if and only if the two are distinct. Also: involving such factors or functions.
7. In Statistics: Of a set of variates: statistically independent. Of an experimental design: such that the variates under investigation can be treated as statistically independent.




orthonormal: (adj) In Mathematics: Of a set, especially a basis for a vector space: such that any two elements are orthogonal and that the inner product of any element with itself is unity.



intension: (n) 1. The action of stretching, tension; straining.
2. Strenuous exertion of the mind or will; earnest attention, intentness; resolution, determination.
3. Increase of degree or force; augmentation, intensification. (Opposed to remission.)
4. In Evolution: Generating or breeding with each other; interbreeding.
5. Degree, especially notable degree, of some quality, etc.; intensity, depth, strength, force. Often contrasted with extension in sense of width of range.
6. In Logic: The internal quantity or content of a notion or concept, the sum of the attributes contained in it; the number of qualities connoted by a term



chiliastic: (adj) Of, pertaining to, or holding the doctrine of the millennium; millenarian.



historicity: (n) Historic quality or character (opposed to legendary or fictitious).



fustilarian: (n) Fustilugs; A person, especially a woman, of gross or corpulent habit; a fat, frowzy woman.



exudate: (n) An exuded substance.



exudativory: (adj) Feeding on gum and other exudates (that which oozes out or diffuses) from trees.



strepsirrhine: (adj) Of or belonging to the Strepsirrhini, one of two suborders of primates, containing lemurs and lorises.



velarium: (n) 1. In Roman History: A large awning used to cover a theatre or amphitheatre as a protection against sun or rain.
2. In Zoology: A thin marginal rim on the bell of certain hydrozoans.



chase: (v) 1. To adorn (metal, plate, etc.) with work embossed or engraved in relief; to engrave a surface.
2. To set with (gems, etc.).
3. To ‘set’ (a gem, etc.) in.



lacis: (n) 1. A kind of lace made by darning patterns on net.
2. In Anatomy: A network of cytoplasm occupying the space between the juxtaglomerular apparatus and the macula densa of a renal corpuscle.



juxtaglomerular: (adj) In Anatomy: Situated next to a glomerulus of the kidney; juxtaglomerular apparatus, a structure variously considered to comprise (a) a juxtaglomerular body alone, (b) one of these bodies and a macula densa, or (c) (also juxtaglomerular complex) one of each of these, together with lacis cells and the afferent and efferent arterioles of a glomerulus; juxtaglomerular body, a mass of tissue scattered along the wall of the afferent arteriole of a glomerulus, composed of cells ( juxtaglomerular cells) with conspicuous cytoplasmic granules, believed to be the site of renin secretion.



macular: (adj) In Biology or Medicine: Of or relating to maculae or macules; characterized by the presence of maculae or macules. Also: of, relating to, or involving the macula of the retina



afferent: (adj) Bringing or conducting inwards or towards. Chiefly in Physiology as afferent nerves, vessels.



efferent: (adj) In Physiology: Conveying outwards, discharging.



glomerulus: (n) In Botany 1. A cluster or head of flowers.
2. A soredium.
In Biology 3. A compact cluster of small organisms, animal tissues, etc.; especially a group or plexus of capillary blood vessels, as those in the Malpighian corpuscles of the kidney.



soredium: (n) In Botany: A thallus-bud or cell in lichens.



palmate: (n) In Chemistry: A salt or ester of palmic acid.


Definitions

Jun. 2nd, 2011 03:23 pm
gwynhefar: (Default)
cope: (n) 1. A long cloak or cape worn as an outer garment, chiefly out of doors.
2. As the special dress of a monk or friar.
3. In the University of Cambridge, a cape or tippet of ermine worn by doctors of divinity on certain special occasions.
4. In Ecclesiastics: A vestment of silk or other material resembling a long cloak made of a semicircular piece of cloth, worn by ecclesiastics in processions, also at Vespers, and on some other occasions.
5. A cover for a table, a table-cloth.
6. A covering of vaulted form; a vault.
7. A vault or canopy like that of the sky.
8. In Founding: The outer portion or case of a mould; the outer mould in bell-founding.
9. A superficial deposit considered as a covering or coating of the stratum beneath.



orphrey: (n) 1. Gold embroidery, or any rich embroidery. Also: something decorated with this, a richly embroidered cloth or garment.
2. An usually richly embroidered ornamental border, band, or panel on a liturgical vestment, altar frontal, etc.



morse: (n) The clasp or fastening of a cope, frequently made of gold or silver, and set with precious stones.



dalmatic: (n) An ecclesiastical vestment, with a slit on each side of the skirt, and wide sleeves, and marked with two stripes, worn in the Western Church by deacons and bishops on certain occasions. Also: a similar robe worn by kings and emperors at coronation and other solemnities.



sudarium: (n) 1. A napkin or cloth for wiping the face; a handkerchief; specifically the cloth with which, according to legend, St. Veronica wiped the face of Christ on the way to Calvary, and on which his features were impressed; hence, any similar cloth venerated as a relic; a portrait of Christ on a cloth.
2. In the Western Church: a strip of material suspended from the left arm near the wrist, worn as one of the Eucharistic vestments.
3. A room in which hot-air or steam baths are taken to produce sweating; a sweating-room (especially in Roman History).



macaroni: (n) A dandy or fop; specifically (in the second half of the 18th cent.) a member of a set of young men who had travelled in Europe and extravagantly imitated Continental tastes and fashions.



byrnie: (n) In Scots: A cuirass, corslet, coat of mail.



mirk/murk: (adj) 1. Dark, gloomy, deficient in light.
2. Originally: wicked, evil. Later also: dulled, blinded, as by sin, etc.
3. Dull, obtuse; unperceptive, unenlightened.
4. Obscure, hard to understand.
5. Gloomy, depressing.
6. Of a person's eyes: having the vision obscured; dim-sighted.
7. Dark in colour.



bratchet: (n) 1. A kind of hound which hunts by scent; in later English use, always feminine, and extended to any kind of hound; a bitch-hound.
2. A term of abuse.
3. A little brat, a child.



compline: (n) In Catholic ritual: The last service of the day, completing the services of the canonical hours; also, the hour of that service.



virnissage: (n) A day before the exhibition of paintings on which exhibitors may retouch and varnish their pictures already hung. Now usuually denoting a private view of paintings before public exhibition.



loupe: (n) A small magnifier used by a watchmaker or jeweller.



culet: (n) 1. A sum collected from a number of persons chargeable; an assessment, a rate.
2. At Oxford University: A fee formerly paid by every graduate to the bedel of his faculty, as a recompense for attendance at disputations, lectures, etc. It was collected by the bedel once a year, and was called in Latin cumulatio.
3. An assessment of parochial dues.
4. The horizontal face or plane forming the bottom of a diamond when cut as a brilliant.
5. A part of ancient armour, consisting of overlapping plates, protecting the hinder part of the body below the waist.



bedel: (n) In the English Universities: the name of certain officials, formerly of two ranks distinguished as esquire bedels and yeomen bedels, having various functions as executive officers of the University. Their duties are now chiefly processional: at Oxford there are four, the junior- or sub-bedel being the official attendant of the Vice-chancellor, before whom he bears a silver staff or mace; at Cambridge there are two, called esquire-bedells, both of whom officially walk in front of the Vice-chancellor with maces.



frowsy: (adj) 1. Ill-smelling, fusty, musty; having a ‘close’ unpleasant smell from being dirty, unwashed, ill-ventilated, or the like.
2. Having a dirty, untidy, soiled, neglected appearance (like e.g. unkempt hair); dingy, rusty, slatternly, unkempt. Of the complexion: Red and coarse, blowzy.




blowzy: (adj) 1. Like a blowze; having a bloated face; red and coarse-complexioned; flushed-looking.
2. Of hair, dress: Dishevelled, frowzy, slatternly.
3. Coarse, rustic.



blowze: (n) A beggar's trull, a beggar wench; a wench.



trull: (n) 1. A low prostitute or concubine; a drab, strumpet, trollop.
2. A girl, lass, wench.



tugtupite: (n) In Mineralogy: A tetragonal aluminosilicate and chloride of sodium and beryllium, Na4AlBeSi4O12Cl.



intaglio: (n) 1. A figure or design incised or engraved; a cutting or engraving in stone or other hard material.
2. The process or art of carving or engraving in a hard material; incised carving as opposed to carving in relief; the condition or fact of being incised. Chiefly in phrase in intaglio, as opposed to in rilievo or in relief.
3. Anything ornamented with incised work; especially a precious stone having a figure or design cut on its surface, an incised gem. Opposed to cameo.
4. A mould of something to be cast or struck in relief; a countersunk die.



gwynhefar: (Default)
arquebus: (n) The early type of portable gun, varying in size from a small cannon to a musket, which on account of its weight was, when used in the field, supported upon a tripod, trestle, or other ‘carriage’, and afterwards upon a forked ‘rest’. The name in German and Flemish meant literally ‘hook-gun’, from the hook cast along with the piece, by which it was fastened to the ‘carriage’; but the name became generic for portable firearms generally in the 16th century, so that the type with the hook was subsequently distinguished as 'arquebuse à croc'.



cicatrice: (n) 1. The scar of a healed wound.
2. A scar-like mark or impression.
3. A scar on the bark of a tree.



callosity: (n) 1. The condition of being callous; abnormal hardness and thickness of the skin or other tissues.
2. A callous formation, a callus; a thickened and hardened part of the skin, such as the hard lumps that arise from constant pressure or friction, or on the cicatrized surfaces of ulcers. Also applied to natural thickenings, such as those on the legs of the horse, the breast of the camel, etc.
3. A hardened state of mind or conscience; insensibility; = callousness.



gimlet: (n) 1. A kind of boring-tool.
2. A cocktail, usu. consisting of gin and lime-juice.
3. In Biology: The volvox terebrella. This animal‥moves along swiftly, turning itself round as it swims, just as if boring its way.
4. A large shallow tub, used for salting bacon and for other purposes.



pancratium: (n) 1. In Greek History: A sporting contest combining wrestling and boxing.
2. In Botany: Any of various bulbous African, Mediterranean, and South Asian plants of the genus Pancratium (family Amaryllidaceae), bearing umbels of fragrant white flowers; especially the sea-daffodil, P. maritimum, of southern Europe. Also, the genus itself.



pancratist/pancratiast: (n) In Greek History: A person who competes in a pancratium; a victor of a pancratium.



brioche: (n) A kind of cake made of flour, butter, and eggs; sponge-cake.



petrifaction: (n) 1. The action of petrifying something; the condition or process of being petrified; conversion into stone or a stony substance; an instance of this;
2. In Geology and Palaeontology: the replacement of the soft organic parts of plant or animal remains by inorganic material, esp. calcium carbonate or silica, often preserving the original structure of the organism (also known as mineralization or fossilization).
3. The action or process of hardening or immobilizing a person or thing; a hardened or immobile condition; a state of physical or mental inactivity or inertia; = petrification.
4. Something that has been petrified or mineralized, or formed by conversion into stone; specifically a fossil formed by petrifaction.



parapluie: (n) An umbrella.



kaftan: (n) 1. A garment worn in Turkey and other eastern countries, consisting of a kind of long under-tunic or vest tied at the waist with the girdle.
2. A wide-sleeved, loose-fitting shirt or dress worn in Western countries, resembling the original garment worn in the East.



kedgeree: (n) An Indian dish of rice boiled with split pulse, onions, eggs, butter, and condiments; also, in European cookery, a dish made of cold fish, boiled rice, eggs, and condiments, served hot.



tournedo: (n) A portion of meat, which can also include a fillet of fish, taken from the most tender part of the animal and formed into a round steak to be prepared. [AN: can you imagine ordering this in Kansas? 'I'd like the tornado, please?' :)]
gwynhefar: (Default)
The OED is baaack!!

So very happy we managed to get the OED Online back for a few years at least. So, here we go.

sardius: (n) A precious stone mentioned by ancient writers; a variety of cornelian, varying in colour from pale golden yellow to reddish orange.



balass: (n) A delicate rose-red variety of the spinel ruby.



spinel: (n) 1. A gem or precious stone of a red or scarlet colour, closely resembling the true ruby, now classed as belonging to the typical species of the spinel group of minerals
2. In Mineralogy: The typical species of a group of minerals (the spinel group), which are compounds of sesquioxides with protoxides, and crystallize in the isometric system. The formula of the typical species is MgAl2O4.
3. One or other of the various minerals belonging to this group. The general formula of the minerals is A2+B23+O4, specifically where B is Al. The name is also applied to any of a large number of artificial minerals having similar structures.



filigrane: (n) 1. Jewel work of a delicate kind made with threads and beads, usually of gold and silver
2. Also used especially of architectural ornament.



parsemé: (adj) Sprinkled, strewn; especially (of a fabric, garment, etc.) decorated with scattered beads, embroidered motifs, etc.



symbolon: (n) An object broken into two parts to encode a message.



catafalque: (n) 1. A stage or platform, erected by way of honour in a church to receive the coffin or effigy of a deceased personage; a temporary structure of carpentry, decorated with painting and sculpture, representing a tomb or cenotaph, and used in funeral ceremonies.
2. A movable structure of this kind; a kind of open hearse or funeral car.



symbature: (n) A symbol used in place of a signature.



fontanel: (n) In Anatomy: 1. The hollow between two muscles.
2. One of several membranous spaces in the head of an infant which lie at the adjacent angles of the parietal bones. In some animals it is permanent.
In Medicine: 3. An artificial ulcer or a natural issue for the discharge of humours from the body. [Obselete]
4. In extended sense: An outlet for the discharge of secretions, etc. Often with mixture of the etymological sense ‘fount’.



orchiectomy: (n) In Surgery: surgical removal of one or both testicles; an instance of this.



garth: (n) 1. A small piece of enclosed ground, usually beside a house or other building, used as a yard, garden, or paddock;
2. A fence or hedge.
3. An enclosure on a river or the seashore for preserving fishes or taking them easily.



mangel-wurzel: (n) A variety of the beet, Beta vulgaris, grown for its large, swollen, yellow-fleshed ‘root’ (formed from the stem base, the hypocotyl, and the upper part of the tap root) which is used as cattle feed.



kohlrabi: (n) A cabbage with a turnip-shaped stem, varieties of which are cultivated as food for cattle in England, and as a vegetable in India and Germany; the turnip-cabbage.



amphiboly: (n) 1. Ambiguous discourse; a sentence which may be construed in two distinct senses; a quibble.
2. A figure of speech: Ambiguity arising from the uncertain construction of a sentence or clause, of which the individual words are unequivocal: thus distinguished by logicians from equivocation, though in popular use the two are confused.



scaphism: (n) An ancient Persian method of execution designed to inflict torturous death. The intended victim was stripped naked and then firmly fastened within a face-to-face pair of narrow rowing boats (or hollowed-out tree trunks), with the head, hands and feet protruding. The condemned was forced to ingest milk and honey to the point of developing severe diarrhea, and more honey would be rubbed on his body to attract insects to the exposed appendages. He would then be left to float on a stagnant pond or be exposed to the sun. The defenseless individual's feces accumulated within the container, attracting more insects, which would eat and breed within his exposed and increasingly gangrenous flesh. The feeding would be repeated each day in some cases to prolong the torture, so that dehydration or starvation did not provide him with the release of death. Death, when it eventually occurred, was probably due to a combination of dehydration, starvation and septic shock. Delirium would typically set in after a few days.



mandamus: (n) In Law: 1. Originally: a writ, mandate, etc., issued by a monarch, directing the performance of a particular act; specifically (a) a writ issued under certain conditions for the seizure of the lands of a tenant-in-chief and enquiry into his next heir, etc.; (b) a writ authorizing an election.
2. Later: a court order or writ directing an inferior court, a corporation, official, etc., to perform a public or statutory duty, especially so as to remedy a legal defect.



pomace: (n) 1. Cider.
2. The pulpy matter remaining after a substance has been pressed to extract the oil or juice.
3. Anything crushed or pounded to a pulp.
4. The crushed apples in cider-making.
5. The offal of a sheep or lamb.



elenctic: (adj) Of or pertaining to refutation; concerned with refutation; that occupies himself with cross-examination.



pareidolia: (n) A psychological phenomenon involving a vague and random stimulus (often an image or sound) being perceived as significant.



volva: (n) 1. The membranous covering which completely encloses many fungi in the early stage of growth.
2. In Scandinavian mythology, a prophetess, a soothsayer, a witch.



mulct: (n) 1. A fine imposed for an offence. Also occasionally in extended use: a compulsory payment, a tax, especially an unfair or arbitrary one.
2. A penalty or punishment of any kind.
3. A blemish, fault, or defect, especially one considered as a penalty or punishment imposed by nature.



rebate: (v) 1. To reduce, lessen in force or intensity, diminish (a condition, quality, feeling, activity, etc.); to cause to abate.
2. To repulse, drive back (an enemy, etc.).
3. To repress, to curb; to lessen the vigour or activity of (the mind, body, spirits, etc.); to stop, thwart (a person, action, etc.).
4. To diminish, lessen, abate.
5. To reduce the effect or force of (a physical agent); to ward off or turn aside (a blow, stroke, etc.).
6. To parry or turn aside an unwelcome question; to give a curt or evasive reply. Also: to refuse to accept something, to rebel.
7. To deduct or subtract (one quantity or number) from another; to allow (a sum) as a reduction. In later use chiefly: to pay back (a sum of money) as a rebate.
8. To give or allow a reduction to (a person, group, etc.); (in later use chiefly) to give (a person, business, etc.) a rebate or refund.
9. To reduce or diminish (a sum or amount); (in later use chiefly) to give a rebate on (a tax, bill, etc.).
10. To blunt a weapon; to dull the edge or point of a blade, etc.
11. To grow blunt.
12. In Falconry: To bring (a hawk) back to the hand; Of the hawk: to return to the hand.
13. To prepare or make ready (a barrel of wine, oil, etc.).
14. To depart, turn away from a thing.
15. In Heraldry: To remove (a charge) from a coat of arms; to diminish (a charge) by removing or obscuring a part, especially a point or projection; to remove (a point, etc.) from a charge. Also: to alter (a coat of arms) especially by the removal or diminishing of a charge.
16. Of a horse: to execute (a curvet) so that both hind legs come to the ground simultaneously.
17. To make a rebate or rabbet in (a piece of wood, stone, etc.).
18. To join together using rebates; to shape rebates in (two or more things) so that they interlock.



charge: (n) In Heraldry: Any device ‘charged’ or borne upon an escutcheon; a bearing.



rabbet: (n) 1. A channel, groove, or slot, cut along the edge or face of a piece of wood or other material and intended to receive the edge or end of another piece or a tongue made specially to fit.
2. A rectangular recess made along a projecting angle or arris to form a step or shoulder.
3. A tongue to fit into a groove.
4. Any one of the sides of a rabbet made in an arris; a shoulder, a ledge.
5. In Scots: A piece of stone (or occasionally timber) cut and shaped so as to form one side of an opening in a wall and accommodate a door, gate, window, or chimney;
6. In Fencing: The act of beating down an opponent's weapon.
7. An elastic beam fixed so as to give a rebound to a large fixed hammer; a spring-pole.



calenture: (n) 1. A disease incident to sailors within the tropics, characterized by delirium in which the patient, it is said, fancies the sea to be green fields, and desires to leap into it.
2. Fever; burning passion, ardour, zeal, heat, glow.


gwynhefar: (Default)
sybaritic: (adj) 1. Of or pertaining to Sybaris or its inhabitants.
2. Characterized by or devoted to excessive luxury; effeminately luxurious.



moel: (n) An isolated hill or small mountain, of convex or dome-like form above, and with concave slopes around the base.



plaint: (n) 1. The action or an act of plaining; audible expression of sorrow; lamentation, grieving.
2. A statement or representation of wrong, injury, or injustice suffered; a complaint.
3. An oral or written statement of grievance made to a court of law, for the purpose of obtaining redress; an accusation, charge, complaint.



landgrave: (n) In Germany: a count having jurisdiction over a territory, and having under him several inferior counts; later, the title of certain German princes.



col: (n) 1. A marked depression in the summit-line of a mountain chain, generally affording a pass from one slope to the other. A word belonging to the Romanic dialects of the Alps, which Alpine climbers and geologists have used of other regions.
2 In Meteorology: A region of lower pressure between to anticyclones



anticyclone: (n) A large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of high atmospheric pressure, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.



corrie: (n) The name given in the Scottish Highlands to a more or less circular hollow on a mountain side, surrounded with steep slopes or precipices except at the lowest part, whence a stream usually flows.



gantry: (n) 1. A four-footed wooden stand for barrels.
2. A frame or platform for carrying a travelling-crane or similar structure.
3. A structure crossing several railway-tracks to accommodate signals.



shippen/shippon: (n) A cattle-shed; a cow-house.



tarn: (n) A small mountain lake, having no significant tributaries.



slew: (v) 1. To turn (a thing) round upon its own axis, or without shifting it from its place; also, loosely, to swing round..
2. to beat, to outwit, to trick; also in phrase 'to get slewed': to loose ones bearing in the bush, to be 'bushed'(Australian and New Zealand slang).
3. To intoxicate.
4. To turn about; to swing round. Also with 'over'. More recently, of motor vehicles: to slide and turn out of the proper course; to 'career'.
5. Of a control mechanism or electronic device: to undergo slewing, the response to a sudden large increase in input, esp. one that causes the device to respond at its maximum rate.



pangolin: (n) An edentate mammal of the genus Manis, of tropical Asia and Africa, the greater part of whose body is covered with horny scales; a scaly ant-eater.



edentate: (adj) Charaterized by the absence of incisor and canine teeth; belonging to the Order Edentata. Sometimes = toothless.



futtock: (n) One of the middle timbers of the frame of a ship, between the floor and the top timbers.



trunnel: (n) Variant of 'tree-nail': A cylindrical pin of hard wood used in fastening timbers together, especially in shipbuilding and other work where the materials are exposed to the action of water.



drumlin: (n) 1. A ridge or 'rigg'; a long narrow hill often separating two parallel valleys; a frequent element in Scottish and Irish geographical proper names.
2. In Geology: A term for a long narrow ridge of 'drift' or diluvial formation, usually ascribed to glacial action.



chiffonier: (n) 1. A piece of furniture, consisting of a small cupboard with the top made so as to form a sideboard.
2. A rag-picker; a collector of scraps.


Definitions

Feb. 1st, 2011 07:39 pm
gwynhefar: (Default)
farouche: (adj) Sullen, shy, and repellent in nature.



catorthoseis: (n) A word used by Marcus Aurelius to mean "right acts".



farrago: (n) A confused group; a medley, mixture, hotchpotch.



riassa: (n)
In Ecclesiastics: An ankle-length garment, usually black, worn by priests and choristers.


lobscouse: (n) A sailor's dish consisting of meat stewed with vegetables and ship's biscuit or the like.



charabanc: (n) A kind of long and light vehicle with tansverse seats looking forward; also, a motor-coach.



cerise: (n) Name of a light bright clear red, resembling that of some cherries.



fucus: (n) 1. Paint or cosmetic for beautifying the skin; a wash or colouring for the face. Frequent in 17th c. writers.
2. A genus of seaweeds with flat leathery fronds.



gleek: (n) 1. A game at cards, played by three persons; forty-four cards were used, twelve being dealt to each player, while the remaining eight formed a common 'stock'.
2. A set of three court cards of the same rank in one hand, in the game of gleek.
3. By transference, a set of three; a trio.



escudo: (n) A Portuguese silver coin, originally of the value of a crown. Also applied to other former coins, gold or silver, in Spain, Portugal, and Spanish America.



trunnion: (n) 1. Each of a pair of opposite gudgeons on the sides of a cannon, upon which it is pivoted upon its carriage.
2. Each of any similar pair of opposite pins or pivots on which anything is supported; specifically in the oscillating steam-engine, a hollow gudgeon on each side of the cylinder, upon which it is pivoted, and through which the steam passes into an out of the cylinder; also, a single projecting pivot.
3. A pin or peg of wood; a treenail.



gudgeon: (n) 1. A pivot, usually of metal, fixed on or let into the end of a beam, spindle, axle, etc., and on which a wheel turns, a bell swings, or the like; in recent use more widely applied to various kinds of journals and similar parts of machinery.
2. The ring or 'eye' in the 'heel' of a gate which turns on the hook or pintle in the gate-post.
3. A metal socket in which the pintle of a rudder turns; one of the notches made in the carrick-bits for receiving the metal bushes wherein the spindle of a windlass works.
4. A wedge or block (of metal).
5. A metallic pin used for securing together two blocks or slabs of stone, etc.



journal: (n) In Machinery: The part of a shaft or axle which rests on the bearings.



pintle: (n) 1. The penis.
2. A pin or bolt, in various mechanical contrivances; especially one on which some other part turns, as in a hinge.



uxorial: (adj) 1. Of or pertaining to a wife or wives.
2. Of actions, etc.: Marked or characterized by excessive affection for one's wife.



gymslip: (n) A sleeveless tunic with a pleated skirt most commonly seen as part of a girl's school uniform.



louver: (n) 1. A domed turret-like erection on the roof of the hall or other apartment in a mediæval building with lateral openings for the passage of smoke or the admission of light.
2. A similar erection serving as a dovecote.
3. A hole in a roof for the passage of smoke; a chimney.
4. An arrangement of sloping boards, laths, or slips of glass overlapping each other, so as to admit air, but exclude rain. Originally, such a contrivance as used to close the apertures of a louver. Also used for other purposes, e.g. to deflect air issuing from an opening or to prevent the direct passage of light through it. Also, an individual slat or strip of such an arrangement.



catoptromancy: (n) Divination by means of a mirror.


gwynhefar: (Default)
soupçon: (n) A suspicion, a suggestion, a very small quantity or slight trace of something.



shag :(n) A cormorant, especially the crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax graculus, which in the breeding season has a crest of long curly plumes.



curragh: (n) A small boat made of wickerwork covered with hides, used from ancient times in Scotland and Ireland; a coracle.



liquamen: (n) A substance reduced to a liquid state. Also the name of a kind of fish-sauce used by the ancient Romans; garum.



garum: (n) A sauce prepared from fermented fish, much used by the ancient Romans, in 16th and 17th century recommended (after classical writers) as a medicine for horses.



spatha: (n) 1. In Botany: a spathe; a large bract or sheathing-leaf enveloping the inflorescence (usually a spadix) of certain plants such as arums, palms, etc., in such a way as completely to enclose it before expansion.
2. A flat blade-shaped implement.



bract: (n) 1. In Botany: A small modified leaf, or scale, growing immediately below the calyx of a plant, or upon the peduncle of a flower.
2. In Zoology: A similar appendage found in some of the Hydrozoa.



spadix: (n) 1. In Botany: A form of inflorescence consisting of a thick fleshy spike, closely set with flowers, and enclosed in a spathe;
2. A succulent spike, whether enclosed in a spathe or not.
3. In Zoology: A part in cephalopods and hydrozoans having some analogy to a spadix in plants.



arum: (n) Any of various monocotyledonous plants constituting the genus Arum (family Araceae), which have insignificant flowers in a club-shaped spike (or spadix) enclosed in a large leafy bract (or spathe); especially (more fully wild arum) Arum maculatum, a common plant of woods and hedges.



crenel: (n) 1. One of the open spaces or indentations alternating with merlons or cops of an embattled parapet, used for shooting or launching projectiles upon the enemy; an embrasure. In plural: battlements, embattled parapets.
2. In Botany: A rounded tooth or denticulation of the margin of a leaf, etc. Sometimes also applied to the notches or indentations between the teeth.



merlon: (n) The part of an embattled parapet between two embrasures; a similar structure on a battleship.



cop: (n) 1. The top or summit of anything; especially of a hill.
2. The head.
3. A crest on the head of a bird.
4. A round piece of wood within the top of a bee-hive.
5. In Spinning: The conical ball of thread wound upon a spindle or tube in a spinning machine.
6. A heap, mound, tumulus.
7. A conical heap of unbound barley, oats, or pease, or of straw or hay.
8. An enclosing mound or bank; a hedge-bank.
9. The central ridge of a butt of ploughed land, lying midway between the 'reens' or gutters on each side.



gambeson: (n) A military tunic, worn especially in the 14th century, made of leather or thick cloth, sometimes padded; it covered the trunk and thighs, and was originally worn under the habergeon, to prevent chafing or bruises, but was sometimes used as a defence without other body-armour.



habergeon: (n) 1. A sleeveless coat or jacket of mail or scale armour, originally smaller and lighter than a hauberk, but sometimes apparently the same as that.
2. Worn as a rough garment for penance.
3. Applied to the elytron of a beetle.



elytron: (n) 1. A sheath or covering.
2. The outer hard wing-case of a coleopterous insect.
3. A term applied to the shield-like plates or notopodial appendages on the back of some polychætous annelids.
4. A term for the vagina.



notopodial: (adj)
Pertaining to, of the nature of, a notopodium: the upper or dorsal branch of a parapodium.



parapodium: (n) One of the jointless lateral processes or rudimentary limbs of annelids, which serve as organs of locomotion, and sometimes also of sensation or respiration.



strigil: (n) 1. In Antiquity: An instrument with a curved blade, for scraping the sweat and dirt from the skin in the hot-air bath or after gymnastic exercise. Also applied to a flesh-brush or other instrument used for the same purpose.
2. In Entomology: a similarly-shaped structure on some insects.



raconteur (n) One skilled in relating anecdotes and stories.



pleurisy: (n) 1. In Pathology: Inflammation of the pleura, with or without effusion of fluid (serum, pus, blood, etc.) into the pleural cavity; a disease characterized by pain in the chest or side, with fever, loss of appetite, etc.; usually caused by chill, or occurring as a complication of other diseases (scarlatina, rheumatic fever, phthisis, etc.)
2. Figuratively, almost always in the sense of 'superabundance, excess'.



pleura: (n) 1. One of the two serous membranes, right and left, which line the thorax and envelop the lungs in mammals; each is reflected on itself so as to form a closed sac, one side or layer of which (pulmonary pleura) invests the lung, while the other (costal or parietal pleura) is attached to the inner wall of the chest.
2. In invertebrates: name for a part of the body-wall on each side in arthropods; in insects the part to which the lower wings are attached.
3. In molluscs the region on each side of the rachis of the lingual ribbon of the odontopohre.



scarlatina: (n) Scarlet fever.



phthisis: (n) A progressive wasting disease; specifically pulmonary consumption; with defining word, applied to tuberculosis of various organs.



rachis: (n) 1. In Botany: The axis of an inflorescence in which flower-stalks occur at short intervals from each other, as in grasses.
2. The axis of a pinnately compound leaf or frond, corresponding to the midrib of a simple leaf.
3. In Anatomy: The vertebral column, or the primitive cord from which it develops.
4. The median part of the odontophore of a mollusc, resembling a series of vertebræ.
5. A cord of protoplasmic matter in the ovary of nematoid worms, round which ova are developed.
6. In Ornithology: The stem or shaft of a feather, especially the part bearing the vexillum, as distinguished from the quill.



vexillum: (n) 1. A flag or banner carried by Roman troops; a body of men grouped under one banner.
2. In Ecclesiology: A small piece of linen or silk attached to the upper part of a crozier.
3. In Botany: The large external petal of a papilionaceous flower.
4. In Ornithology: The vane or web of a feather.



crozier: (n) 1. A cross-bearer, one who bears a cross before an archbisho.
2. The bearer of a bishop's crook or pastoral staff.
3. The pastoral staff or crook of a bishop or abbot.
4. The curled top of a young fern.
5. The flat convolute shell of the cephalopod Spirula.
6. The constellation of the Southern Cross; in plural the four stars of this constellation.



papilionaceous: (adj) 1. Of or pertaining to a butterfly or butterflies; of the nature of a butterfly; belonging to the butterfly tribe.
2. Having the character of which a butterfly is taken as a type.
3. In Botany: Applied, from its fancied resemblance to a butterfly, to that form of flower found in most leguminous plants, having an irregular corolla consisting of a large upper petal (the vexillum or standard), two lateral petals (the alæ or wings), and two narrow lower petals between these (forming the carina or keel). Also said of the plant.



alæ: (n) 1. A wing.
2. A winglike part, process, or expansion, as of a bone, shell, seed, or stem.
3. Either of the two side petals of a flower in the legume family, as the pea.
4. In Roman Antiquity: a small room, as an alcove, opening into a larger room or courtyard.



carina: (n) Applied to various structures of the form of a keel or ridge; especially the two petals forming the base of a papilionaceous corolla; the median ridge on the mericarp of an umbelliferous fruit; the median ridge on the sternum of birds; the dorsal single plate of the shell of Cirreipedes; or the vertebral column of an embryo.



odontophore: (n) A ribbon-like or strap-like structure covered with teeth, forming the masticatory organ of certain molluscs; the lingual ribbon or 'tongue'.



lembi: (n) The Roman name for a type of highly maneuverable boats favoured by the Illyrian tribes in ancient times.

Definitions

Nov. 9th, 2010 08:38 pm
gwynhefar: (Default)
*hefts heavy OED volumes*
*pant, pant*

Ok, here you go.

shofar: (n) An ancient Hebrew musical instrument usually made of a curved ram's horn, still used in Jewish religious services.



dashiki: (n) A West African type of shirt, sometimes worn symbolically by U.S. Negroes [AN: That's what it says, I swear! Published 1989, although I bet that definition was written much earlier].



burnish: (n) Burnishing; a burnishing; specifically anything laid over a surface to give a bright and glossy look.



scapular: (n) 1. In Ecclesiology: A short cloak covering the shoulders; prescribed by the Rule of St. Benedict to be worn by monks when engaged in manual labour, and adopted by certain religious orders as part of their ordinary costume.
2. An article of devotion composed of two small squares of woolen cloth, fastened together by strings passing over the shoulders, worn as a badge of affiliation to the religious order which presents it.
3. In Surgery: A bandage passing over and around the shoulders to support other bandages, etc. upon the lower parts of the body.
4. In Ornithology: Any feather which grows from the pterylæ humerales or scapular region.
5. In Entomology: Two pieces, one on each side of the Medipectus, which succeed the Peristethium, and lie between the midlegs and Pteropega, or wing-socket.



medipectus: (n) In Entomology: The underside of the mesothorax.



mesothorax: (n) In Entomology: The middle ring or segment of the thorax of insects.



peristethium: (n) In Entomology: Kirby's name for a part of the thorax of an insect, now usually called mesosternum.



mesosternum: (n) In Entomology: The central part of the medipectus, or that which passes between the mid-legs when elevated, protruded, or otherwise remarkable.



pteropegum: (n) In Entomology: The socket of the wing of an insect.



nuncio: (n) 1. A permanent official representative of the Roman See at a foreign court.
2. One who bears a message; a messenger.
3. Historically, a member of the Polish diet.



diet: (n) 1. A day's journey; an excursion, a journey.
2. A day's work.
3. In Scots: A day fixed for a particular meeting or assembly; an appointed date or time, specifically the day on which a party in a civil or criminal process is cited to appear in court.
4. In Scots: A session or sitting of a court or other body on an appointed day; a single session of any assembly occupying a day or a part of one.
5. A meeting by formal appointment for conference or transaction of national or international business; a conference, congress, convention; Specifically applied the the regular meeting of the estates of a realm or confederation; hence also collectively to the estates or representatives so meeting.
6. The metal scraped or cut from gold and silver plate assayed day by day at the Mint, and retained for the purpose of trial.



gypsophila: (n) A member of the genus of herbs so called, belonging to the family Caryophyllaceæ and bearing small delicate flowers in panicles.



panicle: (n) In Botany: A compound inflorescence, usually of the racemose type, in which some of the pedicels branch again or repeatedly, forming a loose and irregularly spreading cluster, as in oats and many grasses.



piccalilli: (n) A pickle composed of a mixture of chopped vegetables and hot spices.



adumbration: (n) 1. Shading in Painting.
2. Representation in outline, sketching; an outline, a sketch; a shadowy figure; a faint or slight sketch or description.
3. Symbolic representation typifying or pre-figuring the reality.
4. In Heraldry: An outline figure.
5. Overshadowing; shade, obscuration.



cloture: (n) The French word for the action of closing, applied (among other things) to the closing of a debate in the French Assembly by will of a majority. Thence sometimes applied to the closure in the British House of Commons at its first proposal, and (by opponents) after its introduction in 1882.

Hmm . . the position of the first parentheses bothers me in this definition. As it stands, the phrase 'among other things' seems to modify "applied," rather than "the closing of a debate" the way it should be. I'm imagining the word being applied, referred, seen, and defenestrated to the closing of a debate.


cruent: (adj) Bloody. Also figuratively = cruel.



puellarity: (n) Girlishness; that which is proper to little girls.



vagitus: (n) A cry or a wail, specifically that of a new-born child.



acrophony: (n) The sound of the initial; the use of what was originally a picture-symbol or hieroglyph of an object to represent phonetically the initial syllable or sound of the name of an object; e.g. employing the symbol of an ox, 'aleph,' to represent the syllable or letter 'a'.
gwynhefar: (Default)
I hope y'all appreciate the effort to which I am going to continue posting these :) Now that we have lost our subscription to the Oxford English Dictionary Online due to budget cuts, I am having to look up all these words in the print edition of 1989 and actually type out the definitions instead of copy/pasting. Hopefully I won't come across too many words that were coined after '89 or I'll be in trouble.

lenify: (v) 1. with material object: To relax, make soft or supple (some part of the body); to rend (cider) mellow. Also, to mitigate (a physical condition).
2. With immaterial object: To assuage, mitigate, soften, soothe (pain, suffering, etc.) Also to mitigate (a sentence).
solecistic: (adj) Of the nature of or involving solecism.



solecism: (n) 1. An impropriety or irregularity in speech or diction; a violation of the rules of grammar or syntax; properly, a faulty concord. Without article: Violation of the rules of concord in grammar or syntax; incorrect or ungrammatical speech or diction, or the use of this.
2. A breach or violation of good manners or etiquette; a blunder or impropriety in manners, etc.
3. An error, incongruity, inconsistency, or impropriety of any kind.



concord: (n) 1. Agreement between persons; concurrence in feeling and opinion; harmony, accord.
2. A state of peace and amity between contending parties or nations; concretely, a treaty establishing such relations.
3. In Law: An agreement made in court respecting the conveyance of a fine of lands; also, an agreement made between two or more upon a trespass committed.
4. Agreement or harmony between things; especially said in reference to sounds and rhythmical movements, and in uses thence derived; rhyme.
5. In Music: A combination of notes which is in itself satisfactory to the ear, requiring no 'resolution' or following chord: opposed to discord.
6. In Grammar: Formal agreement between words as parts of speech, expressing the relation of fact between things and their attributes or predicates.



conformably: (adv) 1. In a conformable manner; in conformity with; agreeably; compliantly.
2. In Geology: In conformable order.



conformable: (adj) 1. According in form or character to (a standard or pattern); similar, resembling, like.
2. Corresponding so as to fit or suit; agreeable, consistent, harmonious; fitting, adapted, fitly adjusted. Accordant with one's condition, etc.; convenient, suitable.
3. Of persons: Disposed or wont to conform; compliant to. Of compliant disposition or practice; tractable, submissive, disposed to follow directions.
4. Specifically in English History: Conforming to the usages of the Church of England, especially as proscribed by the Acts of Uniformity.
5. In Geology: Having the same direction or plane of stratification: said of strata deposited one upon another in parallel planes.



efflux: (n) 1. A flowing outwards of water or other liquid; a stream, river. Also, of air, gases, volatile particles, magnetic or electric currents, etc.; opposed to afflux or influx. Hence, a channel of outflow.
2. In Pathology: A miscarriage that happens before the tenth day.
3. The lapse, passing away (of time, or of a particular period); hence, expiry, end.
4. That which flows out; an emanation.



maquiladora: (n) A concept often referred to an operation that involves manufacturing in a country that is not the client's and as such has an interesting duty or tariff treatment. It normally requires a factory, that may import materials and equipment on a duty-free and tariff-free basis for assembly or manufacturing and then "re-exports" the assembled or manufactured product, sometimes back to the originating country.



ciborium: (n) 1. In Architecture: an arched vault, or canopy raised over the high-alter.
2. Applied to a receptacle for the reservation of the Eucharist. Of different forms; sometimes suspended from the roof or ciborium (sense 1), sometimes having the form of a temple or tabernacle, sometimes of a cup with an arched cover.



paten: (n) 1. The plate or shallow dish, usually circular and of silver, on which the bread is laid at the celebration of the Eucharist; used as a cover for the chalice.
2. A shallow dish or plate.
3. A thin circular plate of metal; anything resembling or suggesting this.



cruet: (n) 1. A small bottle or vial for liquids, etc.; now only applied to a small glass bottle with a stopper, to contain vinegar, oil, etc. for the table.
2. In Ecclesiology: A small vessel to hold wine or water for use in the celebration of the Eucharist, or to hold holy water for other uses.



purificator: (n) 1. In Ecclesiology: A cloth used at communion for wiping the chalice and paten, and the fingers and lips of the celebrant.
2. One who purifies; a purifier; one who performs magical purifications.
3. An apparatus for purifying gases or other substances.



charism: (n) 1. In Theology: A free gift or favour specially vouchsafed by God; a grace, a talent.
2. In form 'charisma': A gift or power of leadership or authority; aura. Hence, the capacity to inspire devotion or enthusiasm.



lustring: (n) A glossy silk fabric.



vail: (n) 1. Advantage, benefit, profit; advance, progress.
2. In Scots: Value or worth; account, estimation.
3. A casual or occasional profit or emolument in addition to salary, stipend, wages, or other regular payment; especially one accruing or attached to an office or position; a fee or offering of this nature. Usually in plural.
4. A dole or gratuity given to one of inferior position.
5. A gift or present in the nature of a bribe.
6. A gratuity given to a servant or attendant; a tip; specifically one of those given by a visitor on his departure to the servants of the house in which he has been a guest.
7. In plural: perquisite.
8. The going down or setting of the sun.



spencer: (n) 1. A kind of wig.
2. A short double-breasted overcoat without tails worn by men in the latter part of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th.
3. A kind of close-fitting jacket or bodice commonly worn by women and children early in the 19th century, and since revived.
4. A short coat or jacket.
5. A type of under-bodice (usually made of wool) worn especially by women and girls to provide extra warmth in the winter.
6. A form of life-belt.
7. A small glass of gin.
8. A type of rim-fire repeating rifle or carbine used especially during the U.S. Civil War.
9. A fore-and-aft sail, set with a gaff, serving as a trysail to the fore or main mast of a vessel.



gaff: (n) 1. An iron hook; a staff or stick armed with this; Specifically a barbed fishing spear; also a stick armed with an iron hook for landing large fish, especially salmon.
2. Nautical: A spar used in ships to extend the heads of the fore-and-aft sails which are not set on stays.
3. A steel spur for a fighting cock; the spike of spur.



trysail: (n) A small fore-and-aft sail, set with a gaff, and sometimes with a boom, on the fore- or mainmast, or on a small supplementary mast abaft either of these.


Definitions

Oct. 7th, 2010 10:28 am
gwynhefar: (Default)
bast: (n) 1. The inner bark of the lime or linden, which, cut into strips and coarsely plaited, is sold as ‘Russia matting’; also applied generally to flexible fibrous barks, and other similar materials, and in Physiological Botany to all fibres of the same cellular structure.
2. A rope, mat, etc. made of bast.
3. Bastardy
4. Sanctuary, refuge, asylum.



kenaf: (n) The fibre of an Indian plant, Hibiscus cannabinus, used for making ropes and coarse cloth; brown Indian hemp (also ambari hemp); the plant itself.



bagasse: (n) 1. The refuse products in sugar-making, whether from the cane or from beet.
2. A disease of the lungs, due to inhalation of the dust of bagasse.



factotum: (n) 1. In Latin phrases: 'Dominus factotum', used for ‘one who controls everything’, a ruler with uncontrolled power; 'Johannes factotum', a Jack of all trades, a would-be universal genius.
2. One who meddles with everything, a busybody.
3. A man of all-work; also, a servant who has the entire management of his master's affairs.
4. In Printing: An ornamental block having a space in the centre for the insertion of a capital letter of an ordinary fount of type is called a ‘factotum initial’, or more properly a ‘factotum’.



anadiplosis: (n) Reduplication; the beginning of a sentence, line, or clause with the concluding, or any prominent, word of the one preceding.



columbarium: (n) 1. A pigeon-house, dove-cote; a pigeon-hole.
2. In Roman Antiquity: A subterranean sepulchre, having in its walls niches or holes for cinerary urns; also one of these niches or recesses; A similar structure in a modern crematorium.
3. A hole left in a wall for the insertion of the end of a beam.



catholicon: (n) 1. An electuary supposed to be capable of evacuating all humours; a universal remedy or prophylactic; panacea.
2. A universal formula.
3. A comprehensive treatise.

Of course, I can't help thinking it sounds like a convention for Catholic geeks, with panels on translating the Bible into Klingon, and how to make a rosary out of used computer chips.


immanentize: (v) To make immanent: indwelling, inherent; actually present or abiding in; remaining within.



eschaton: (n) The divinely ordained climax of history.

The phrase "immanentize the eschaton" refers to a Catholic term for the sin of most heretic groups who attempt to either create heaven of hell in this world instead of waiting for it in the next.



ontogeny: (n) 1. In Biology: The origin and development of the individual organism; ontogenesis.
2. The branch of science that deals with ontogenesis.



machinima: (n) The practice or technique of producing animated films using the graphics engine from a video game. Also: a film produced in this way; such films as a genre.



tmesis: (n) The separation of the elements of a compound word by the interposition of another word or words. As in, 'abso-fuckin-lutely' - nice to have a name for it, isn't it?



presbyopia: (n) Deterioration of near vision occurring with advancing age, owing to increasing rigidity of the lens of the eye with reduction in the power of accommodation.



autotomy: (n) The casting off or ejection of some part or parts of the body as a reflex action peculiar to some animals when disturbed or in order to escape. Like a lizard detaching its tail to get away.


gwynhefar: (Default)
graticulation: (n) The division of a design or plan into squares with the object of reproducing accurately in the process of enlargement or reduction the proportions in detail of the original; a surface so divided.



size: (n) 1. A glutinous or viscid wash applied to paper, parchment, etc., to provide a suitable ground for gilding, painting, or other work.
2. In Printing: the preparation used for printing with bronze.
3. A semi-solid glutinous substance, prepared from materials similar to those which furnish glue, and used to mix with colours, to dress cloth or paper, and for various other purposes.
4. The buffy coat on the surface of coagulated blood in certain conditions.



viscid: (adj) 1. Of fluid or soft substances: Having a glutinous or gluey character; sticky, adhesive, ropy.
2. Of surfaces: Covered with a glutinous or sticky secretion. Chiefly in Botany: of leaves.



gesso: (n) 1. Plaster of Paris; gypsum, either in the native state (obs.) or as prepared for use in painting and sculpture; a prepared surface of plaster as a ground for painting.
2. A work of art executed in plaster.



fugitive: (adj) 1. Apt or tending to flee; given to, or in the act of, running away.
2. That has taken flight, especially from duty, an enemy, justice, or a master. Also, of a debtor: Intending flight.
3. Of a substance (e.g. the metal mercury): Escaping from or eluding the grasp, slippery.
4. Driven out, banished, exiled.
5. Moving from place to place; flitting, shifting, vagabond. Also figuratively: fickle.
6. Of immaterial things: Evanescent, fleeting, of short duration.
7. Of impressions, colours, etc.: Quickly fading or becoming effaced. Less correctly of material substances: Perishable.
8. Of a chemical substance: Volatile.
9. In Botany: Of flowers and petals: Soon falling.
10. Of a literary composition (occasionally of a writer): Concerned or dealing with subjects of passing interest; ephemeral, occasional.



retiarius: (n) In Roman History: A Roman gladiator who fought with a net and trident. Also figuratively: in allusion to a person whose tactics are designed to ensnare or trap an opponent.



tabby: (n) 1. A general term for a silk taffeta, apparently originally striped, but afterwards applied also to silks of uniform colour waved or watered.
2. A cat having a striped or brindled coat.
3. An old or elderly maiden lady: a dyslogistic appellation; often with a half-humorous attribution of certain qualities of the cat; sometimes applied to any spiteful or ill-natured female gossip or tattler.
4. An (attractive) young woman or girl.
5. A collector's name for two Pyralid moths, the Tabby, Aglossa pinguinalis, and the Small Tabby, A. cuprealis, both with fore wings greyish brown, clouded with a darker colour.
6. Padding or quilting to improve the figure. tabbies, padded or quilted stays.
7. A concrete formed of a mixture of lime with shells, gravel, or stones in equal proportions, which when dry becomes very hard.



maculate: (adj) Spotted, stained, soiled; defiled; (Now chiefly literary and poetic, in expressed or implied antithesis to immaculate.)



comminate: (v) To threaten (with Divine vengeance), anathematize.



elocutionist: (n) One who practises the art of elocution; a proficient in the art of elocution.



elocution: (n) 1. Oratorical or literary expression of thought; literary ‘style’ as distinguished from ‘matter’; the power or art of appropriate and effective expression.
2. Eloquence, oratory; in plural, harangues.
3. Oral utterance; way or manner of speaking.
4. The art of public speaking so far as it regards delivery, pronunciation, tones, and gestures; manner or style of oral delivery.



fluyte: (n) Fluytes were invented by the Dutch around 1600, then widely copied throughout northern Europe. Essentially smaller and much more economical merchantmen, they could be sailed with a tiny crew (12 to 15 men was not uncommon). A fluyte had large cargo space but a draft so shallow it could enter rivers, coves and small harbors unsuitable to larger craft. Its sailing qualities were similar to a merchantman's, although the best point of sailing differed. Fluytes made poor warships and were almost always manned by peaceful traders who surrendered without much of a fight. They were highly unpopular as pirate ships.



pinnace: (n) 1. A small light vessel, usually having two schooner-rigged (originally square-rigged) masts, often in attendance on a larger vessel and used as a tender or scout, to carry messages, etc.
2. A small boat, originally rowed with eight oars, later with sixteen, forming part of the equipment of a warship or other large vessel. In later use also: any of various small (often motor-driven) boats.
3. A woman; especially (in early use) a mistress, a prostitute.



chine: (n) 1. The projecting rim at the heads of casks, etc., formed by the ends of the staves;
2. The line of intersection between the sides and bottom of a flat-bottomed boat; the angle in the planking of a V-bottomed boat.



souse: (v) 1. To prepare or preserve (meat, fish, etc.) by steeping in some kind of pickle, esp. one made with vinegar or other tart liquor.
2. To steep or soak in honey, oil, etc.
3. To plunge or immerse (a person, etc.) deeply or thoroughly in or into water, etc.
4. To drench or soak with water, etc.
5. In the 18th century: to impose upon, to swindle, etc.
6. Of rain or water: To drown out (a fire).
7. To intoxicate thoroughly.
8. With 'up': To bring to extremities.
9. To dash or pour (a quantity of water or something containing this).
10. To soak; to be or become soaked or drenched; to fall with a plunge; to go plunging or sinking in water, etc.
11. To have a thorough wash.
12. To drink so as to become intoxicated, to carouse.
13. To flow or fall in copious streams.


gwynhefar: (Default)
This may be one of the last of these I get to post using my preferred source, the OED. This is because LSU is losing its subscription to the OED online September 1st, due to budget cuts. This is one of those things that absolutely appalls me.

(Also, the smaller text are the terms that were not on the original list, but were derived by following unfamiliar words that showed up in the definitions themselves. Just so you can see how far such a thread can go.

protend: (v) 1. To cause to project; to put forth, stretch forth; to thrust forward.
2. To stretch forward; to stick out, protrude.
3. To cause to be extended in length, or in one dimension of space; In Geometry: to produce (a line). Passively, to extend, stretch, reach (from one point to another).
4. To increase in magnitude or amount, to enlarge.
5. To extend in duration; to protract, prolong.
6. To portend.
7. In Philosophy: In phenomenology: to extend (the consciousness or perception of a present act or event) into the future.



meson: (n) 1. In Spain, Mexico, and the south-western United States: an inn, a boarding house.
2. In Anatomy, Zoology, and Entomology: The median plane or midline of the body.
3. In Particle Physics: Originally: any of a group of unstable subatomic particles (first found in cosmic rays) which are intermediate in mass between electrons and protons. Now: specifically any such particle that is strongly interacting and has zero or integral spin, certain of which occur in atomic nuclei as transmitters of the binding force between the nucleons.



nucleon: (n) 1. In Biochemistry: A kind of nucleoprotein or phosphoprotein.
2. In Nuclear Physics: A subatomic particle that is a constituent of all atomic nuclei and has a positive charge numerically equal to that of the electron; (in chemical reactions) a hydrogen ion; a proton.
3. A proton or a neutron. Also: specifically a particle of which these may be regarded as two distinct states, differing in isospin.



pyx: (n) 1. In the Christian Church: The vessel or box in which the consecrated bread of the Eucharist is kept.
2. The box or chest at a mint in which specimen coins are deposited to be tested annually. Especially in "trial of the pyx" n. the official trial of the composition, form, and weight of such coins, now conducted annually in the United Kingdom by a jury under the direction of the Queen's Remembrancer.
3. More generally: a box; a casket;
4. A mariner's compass.
5. In Anatomy: The acetabulum.
6. The constellation Pyxis.



acetabulum: (n) 1. In Roman History: A cup to hold condiments, especially vinegar, for serving at the table.
2. measure of capacity for liquids and dry granular substances, equal to one-eighth of a sextary (approx. 70 ml or 2.4 fluid ounces).
3. In Anatomy and Zoology: The cup-shaped joint cavity on the outer side of the hip bone into which the head of the femur fits.
2. Any of the vascular structures by which the endometrium and placenta are attached (in ruminants); a caruncle or a cotyledon.
4. Originally: each of the rounded suckers on the tentacles of many cephalopod molluscs. Later: a ventral sucker in many parasitic flatworms (especially trematodes) used for attachment to the host.
5. In Entomology: The socket or cavity of a joint in an insect.
6. A rounded socket in the base of an echinoderm spine which articulates with a tubercle or mamelon on the test.
7. Any of various plants having a feature likened to a navel; Navelwort.
8. In Mycology: A cup-shaped receptacle occurring in certain kinds of fungus.



sextary: (n) 1. In ancient Rome: a measure of capacity for liquids, equal to one-sixth of a congius (approx. 1.2 pints or 0.5 litres). In the Middle Ages: a large measure for liquid, varying locally between 4 and 6 imperial gallons (18 and 27 litres).
2. In ancient Rome: a measure of capacity for dry substances, equal to one-sixteenth of a modius (1 pint or approx. 0.5 litres). In the Middle Ages: a similar measure of varying capacity, often equated to 2 pounds (or approx. 1 kg).
3. Any one of the six divisions of the city of Venice.



congius: (n) 1. In Roman Antiquity: A measure for liquids, containing the eighth part of a Roman amphora, or about 7 pints.
2. In Pharmacology: The pharmaceutical name for a gallon, represented in prescriptions by the letter C.



amphora: (n) 1. In Classical Antiquities: A two-handled vessel, of various shape, used by the ancients for holding wine, oil, etc.
2. A liquid measure, containing, with the Greeks, about 9 gallons; with the Romans, containing 6 gals. 7 pts., and also called quadrantal.
3. In Botany: Sometimes applied to the lower or permanent part of the capsule called pyxidium, which remains attached to the flower stalk in the form of an urn, as in Hyoscyamus.



pyxidium: (n) In Botany: In a flowering plant: a capsule opening by transverse dehiscence, so that the top comes off like the lid of a box.



modius: (n) 1. In ancient Rome: a measure of corn equal to about a peck (approx. 2 imperial gallons or 9 litres). In the Middle Ages: any of various measures of dry or liquid capacity, often equated with a bushel.
2. In Ancient History: A tall cylindrical headdress of a kind worn by certain deities, as depicted in classical art.



caruncle: (n) 1. A small fleshy excrescence: applied in Anatomy to certain natural formations, as the lachrymal and urethral caruncles, the wattles of the turkey-cock, etc. In Pathology, formerly applied to a stricture.
2. In Botany: An excrescence at or about the hilum of certain seeds.



stricture: (n) 1. In Pathology: A morbid narrowing of a canal, duct, or passage, esp. of the urethra, œsophagus, or intestine.
2. In Phonetics: Partial or complete closure of the air-passage in the articulation of speech sounds.
3. In various occasional uses: The action of binding or encompassing tightly; tight closure; restriction.
4. A spark, flash of light.
5. A touch, slight trace.
6. An incidental remark or comment; now always, an adverse criticism.
7. Strictness.



hilum: 1. Something very minute.
2. In Botany: The point of attachment of a seed to its seed-vessel; the scar on the ripe seed; A similar mark on a starch-granule; The aperture in the extine of a pollen grain.
3. In Anatomy: Applied also to certain small apertures and depressions.
4. In Pathology: A term for a small flattened staphyloma of the iris from corneal perforation, in consequence of its likeness to the hilum of the garden bean.
5. A little opening in the statoblast of a sponge.



extine: (n) In Botany: The outer membrane of the pollen grain.



staphyloma: (n) Protrusion of the cornea or sclera, resulting from inflammation.



statoblast: (n) A reproductive gemmule developed in some Polyzoa and Sponges and liberated after the death of the parent organism.



gemmule: (n) 1. In Botany: The part of a plant embryo that develops into the shoot system, consisting of the epicotyl and first leaves.
2. One of the reproductive cells of cryptogams.
3. In Zoology: A small gem or gemma; specifically a ciliated embryo of one of the Cœlenterata; an encysted mass of sponge-particles, from which new ones are produced. In Darwin's theory of pangenesis, one of the hypothetical units conceived of as capable of reproducing the part from which it is thrown off.



gemma: (n) 1. In Botany: A leaf-bud as distinguished from a flower-bud.
2. In mosses, liverworts, etc.: A small cellular body which becomes detached from the mother-plant and originates a new one.
3. In Zoology: A bud-like growth upon animals of low organization, which becomes detached and develops into a new individual.



cotyledon: (n) 1. In Physiology: One of the separate patches of villi on the fœtal chorion of Ruminants; also applied to the corresponding vascular portions of the uterine mucous membrane. Formerly applied also to the less separated lobules of the human and other discoid or diffuse placentæ.
2. In Botany: A genus of plants of the family Crassulaceæ, having thick succulent peltate leaves; the British species is C. Vmbilicus, popularly called Navelwort or Pennywort.
3. The primary leaf in the embryo of the higher plants (Phanerogams); the seed-leaf.



chorion: (n) 1. In Anatomy: The outermost membrane enveloping the fœtus before birth.
2. In Botany: The soft and pulpy substance of the primitive nucleus of the seed.
3. In Anatomy: The cutis vera or true skin; corium.
4. Choroid tunic.



corium: (n) 1. In Physiology: The true skin or derma under the epidermis.
2. In Entomology: The leathery or horny basal portion of the wing of a heteropterous insect.
3. In Antiquities: A leathern body-armour formed of overlapping flaps or scales.



heteropterous: (adj) In Entomology: Belonging to a suborder of HEMIPTERA, comprising those insects whose wings consist of dissimilar parts, being coriaceous at the base and membranous at the tip; the true bugs.



coriaceous: (adj) 1. Resembling leather in texture, appearance, etc.; leathery.
2. Made of leather, leathern.



choroid tunic: (n) A vascular membrane lining the eye-ball, between the sclerotic coat and the retina, continuous in front with the iris, and containing numerous dark pigment cells.



peltate: (adj) 1. In Botany and Zoology: Of a leaf: having the petiole joined to the (often more or less circular) blade at or near the middle rather than at the margin. Of other structures: having a similar mode of attachment.
2. In Archaeology: Shaped like a pelta.



pelta: (n) 1. In Classical History: A light shield, typically crescent-shaped but sometimes small and round, associated especially with Thracians and Amazons, but adopted by a number of Greek armies in the late 5th or 4th centuries.
2. In Architecture and Archaeology: An ornamental motif resembling a pelta in shape.
3. In Botany: Any of various shield-like structures, typically either crescent-shaped or having the form of a slightly concave disc; specifically a flat apothecium without an excipulum as found in certain lichens (as the genus Peltigera). Also: a bract or scale attached by the middle like a peltate leaf.
4. In Microbiology: A crescentic microtubular structure associated with the axostyle in certain flagellate protozoans.



apothecium: (n) In Botany: The ‘shield’ or spore-case, containing the fructification in lichens.



excipulum: (n) In Botany: A layer of cells lying beneath and partially enclosing, as a cup, the apothecium in lichens.



axostyle: (n) In Zoology: A slender flexible rod of organic substance forming a supporting axis for the body of many Flagellates.



tubercle: (n) 1. A small tuber or body resembling a tuber.
2. In Anatomy and Zoology: A small rounded projection or protuberance, as on a bone, or on the surface of the body in various animals.
3. In Pathology: A small firm rounded swelling or nodule on the surface of the body or in a part or organ; specifically a mass of granulation-cells characteristic of tuberculosis; through transference, the disease tuberculosis.
4. In Botany: A small tuber, or a root-growth resembling a tuber, as in many orchids.
2. A small wart-like swelling or protuberance on a plant.



mamelon: (n) 1. A rounded eminence or hillock.
2. A small rounded structure; especially in Zoology: the central knob of an echinoid tubercle; in Anatomy: a prominence on the cutting edge of an incisor tooth.























































sephiroth: (n) In the philosophy of the Cabbala, the ten hypostatized attributes or emanations by means of which the Infinite enters into relation with the finite.



hypostatize: (v) To make into or treat as a substance.



autophagia: (n) The feeding upon oneself, sustenance of life during the process of starvation by absorption of the tissues of the body.



obtest: (v) 1. To call upon in the name of something sacred; to charge solemnly, adjure; to beg earnestly, beseech, entreat, or implore (a person).
2. To beg earnestly or plead for; to beseech.
3. To affirm solemnly, especially to protest (one's innocence).
4. To call (God, etc.) to witness; to appeal to in confirmation of a statement.
5. To make supplication or entreaty; to beseech or implore; to plead with a person.
6. To call heaven to witness; to protest against.



handsaw: (n) 1. A saw managed by one hand.
2. In "a hawk and a handsaw": handsaw is generally explained as a corruption of heronshaw or hernsew, dialectically harnsa, heron. (Other conjectures taking hawk in a different sense from the bird have also been made.) No other instances of the phrase, (except as quotations from Shakespeare), have been found.



heronshaw: (n) A little or young heron; or just a heron.



caballer: (n) One who cabals or intrigues.



diffide: (v) To want faith or confidence; to have or feel distrust; to distrust (the opposite of confide).



rowel: (n) A small stellar wheel or disk with sharp radial points and capable of rotation, forming the extremity of a spur.


farraginous: (adj) Miscellaneous, indiscriminate, ‘hotchpotch’. Also of a person: That makes a hotch-potch.



ambo: (n) Special name of the pulpit or reading-desk in early Christian churches; an oblong enclosure with steps usually at the two ends.



narthex: (n) In Architecture: A vestibule or antechamber stretching across the western end of some (especially early or Orthodox) Christian churches or basilicas, divided from the nave by a wall, screen, or railing. In the early Church the narthex was sometimes set apart for use by women, catechumens, or penitents.



amice: (n) 1. A cloth for wrapping round, a scarf, handkerchief, or other loose wrap.
2. In Ecclesiastics: An oblong piece of white linen, used in the Western Church in conjunction with the alb, originally enveloping the head and neck, now generally folded so as to lie round the neck and shoulders: often taken to symbolize ‘the helmet of salvation’.
3. Used to render the Roman toga.
4. Used loosely of other garments.
5. An article of costume of the religious orders, made of, or lined with grey fur. It varied at different times in character and mode of wearing, being originally (it is said) a cap or covering for the head; afterwards a hood, or cape with a hood; in later times a mere college ‘hood’ or badge, borne by canons in France on the left arm; The fur of the marten or grey squirrel with which the amice was lined or bordered.

Definitions

Aug. 9th, 2010 05:22 pm
gwynhefar: (Default)
sivatherium: (n) In Palaeontology: A fossil ruminant of great size, with four horns, discovered in the Siwalik or Sub-Himalayan hills in Northern India.



gulag: (n) 1. In the former Soviet Union, the name of a department of the Soviet secret police responsible between 1934 and 1955 for the administration of corrective labour camps and prisons.
2. These camps and prisons collectively, both under the N.K.V.D. and subsequently; a prison camp, especially one for political prisoners; hence through transference, any place or political system in which the oppression and punishment of dissidents is institutionalized.



simar/cymar/chimer: (n) 1. A robe or loose light garment for women; especially an under garment, a chemise.
2. A loose upper robe, especially that worn by a bishop, to which the lawn sleeves are attached.



luff: (v) Nautical: 1. To bring the head of a ship nearer to the wind; to steer or sail nearer the wind; to sail in a specified direction with the head kept close to the wind.
2. To bring the head of (a vessel) nearer to the wind.
3. In yacht-racing: To get the windward side of (an opponent); To obstruct (an opponent's yacht which is attempting to pass to windward on the same course) by sailing one's own yacht closer to the wind.
4. To alter the inclination of (the jib of a crane or derrick); to raise or lower in a vertical plane.



jib: (n) 1. Nautical: A triangular stay-sail stretching from the outer end of the jib-boom to the fore-topmast head in large ships, and from the bowsprit to the mast-head in smaller craft. flying jib, a second sail of similar shape set before the jib on the flying jib-boom (but c1700-1750 applied to the only jib of large vessels); in some large vessels more jibs, in extreme cases as many as six, are carried, the outermost being the jib of jibs.
2. The projecting arm of a crane; also applied to the boom of a derrick.



derrick: (n) 1. A hangman; hanging; the gallows.
2. A contrivance or machine for hoisting or moving heavy weights.
3. A tackle used at the outer quarter of the mizen-mast.
4. A spar or boom set up obliquely, with its head steadied by guys and its foot secured by lashings, or pivoted or socketed to the deck, floor, etc., and furnished with suitable tackle and purchases; originally and chiefly used on board ship.
5. A kind of crane (more fully derrick-crane) in which the jib is pivoted to the foot of the central post, so that it may take various angles with the perpendicular; a ‘jib and tie’ crane. Also often applied to any outstanding jib or arm with a pulley at the end, e.g. those outside the lofts of stables, warehouses, etc.
6. A tall structure used to support telegraph wires.
7. A structure erected over a deep-bored well, especially an oil-well, to support the drilling apparatus.



scud: (v) 1. To run or move briskly or hurriedly; to dart nimbly from place to place.
2. In the imperative: Be off! Make haste!
3. To sail or move swiftly on the water. Now chiefly (and in technical nautical use exclusively), to run before a gale with little or no sail.
4. Of clouds, foam, etc.: To be driven by the wind.
5. To pass, travel, or sail quickly over.
6. To throw (a flat stone) so as to make it skim the surface of a body of water.
7. To shoot or discharge (a load of herrings) into the hold of a vessel.
8. In Scots: To slap, beat, strike, spank; to beat down.
9. In Scots: To quaff, to drink liberally.
10. In Tanning: To remove remaining hairs, dirt, etc., from (skins or hides) with a hand-knife.
11. To make straw into ‘scuds’: A wisp of twisted straw, used for stopping a drain.



amain: (adv) 1. In, or with, full force; with main force, with all one's might; vehemently, violently.
2. Hence, with reference to motion. At full speed.
3. Without delay, in all haste; at once.
4. Exceedingly, greatly.



cate: (n) 1. In plural: Provisions or victuals bought (as distinguished from, and usually more delicate or dainty than, those of home production); in later use, sometimes merely = victuals, food.
2. Choice viands; dainties, delicacies.



casque: (n) 1. A piece of armour to cover the head; a helmet. A term applied very loosely to all kinds of military head-pieces, and now only historical, poetical, or foreign.
2. In Botany: The upper lip of the corolla of certain Labiatæ; also the upper division of the perigone of orchids.
3. In Zoology: A helmet-like structure, as in the cassowary, the toucans.



irremeable: (adj) Admitting of no return; from, by, or through which there is no return.



inimitable: (adj) 1. Incapable of being imitated; surpassing or defying imitation; without compare; peerless.
2. Not deserving of imitation; not to be imitated.



sallow: (n) 1. A plant of the genus Salix, a willow; chiefly, in narrower sense, as distinguished from ‘osier’ and ‘willow’, applied to several species of Salix of a low-growing or shrubby habit; Also, one of the shoots of a willow.
2. The wood of the sallow tree.
3. A collectors' name for certain moths the larvæ of which feed on the sallow or willow; especially a moth of the genus Xanthia.



croslet: (n) 1.
2. A crucible.
3. In Heraldry: A small cross.
4. A small cross (used as an ornament, etc.).
5. A linen cloth worn across the forehead.



crucible: (n) 1. A vessel, usually of earthenware, made to endure great heat, used for fusing metals, etc.; a melting-pot.
2. A hollow or basin at the bottom of a furnace to collect the molten metal.
3. Figuratively used of any severe test or trial.



cuish/cuishe/cuisse: (n) In plural: armour for protecting the front part of the thighs; in singular: a thigh-piece.



chine: (n) 1. An open fissure or crack in a surface; a cleft, crack, chink, leak.
2. Specifically: A fissure or crack in the skin; a chap.
3. A cut, an incision.
4. A fissure in the surface of the earth; a crevice, chasm; specifically, on the Isle of Wight and Hampshire coast, a deep and narrow ravine cut in soft rock strata by a stream descending steeply to the sea.
5. The spine, backbone, or vertebral column; more loosely ‘the part of the back in which the spine is found’
6. The back.
7. In Cookery: A ‘joint’ consisting of the whole or part of the backbone of an animal, with the adjoining flesh. The application varies much according to the animal; in mutton it is the ‘saddle’; in beef any part of the back (ribs or sirloin). Specifically: The backbone and immediately adjoining flesh of a bacon-pig, which remains when the sides are cut off for bacon-curing.
8. A ridge, crest, arête.
9. The projecting rim at the heads of casks, etc., formed by the ends of the staves;
10. Nautical: the line of intersection between the sides and bottom of a flat-bottomed boat; the angle in the planking of a V-bottomed boat.



arête: (n) A sharp ascending ridge or ‘edge’ of a mountain. The local name in French Switzerland, whence it has become a technical term with mountain-climbers.


gwynhefar: (Book Porn)
Oh woe is me! The Oxford English Dictionary Online is one of the databases we will be losing September 1st due to budget cuts at the University. This means that after that date I am either going to have to use an inferior dictionary for these word posts, or else lug the 20 ponderous volumes of the print edition back and forth to the computer and type out the definitions by hand. This is a truly calamitous occasion indeed.

Ah well, I shall make the most of the time I have remaining thus:

cephalic: (adj) 1. Of or pertaining to the head, situated in the head; of the nature of a head.
2. Curing or relieving disorders of the head.



phalarope: (n) Any one of three small, migratory, northern shorebirds constituting the genus Phalaropus and the subfamily Phalaropodinae (family Scolopacidae), which have lobed feet (enabling habitual swimming) and are noted for their reversal of usual sexual roles, the males being less colourful than the females and taking care of the eggs and young.



bitt: (n) Nautical: One of the strong posts firmly fastened in pairs in the deck or decks of a ship, for fastening cables, belaying ropes, etc.; generally used in the plural. The chief pair, the riding bitts, are used for fastening the cable while the ship rides at anchor; others are the topsail-sheet bitts, carrick-bitts, wind-lass bitts, etc.



atelectasis: (n) Imperfect dilatation, especially of the lungs of newly-born children.



haulser/hawser: (n) (Nautical) A large rope or small cable, in size midway between a cable and a tow-line, between 5 and 10 inches in circumference; used in warping and mooring; in large ships now made of steel.



mole: (n) 1. Mass, greatness; a great mass; a large piece.
2. A massive structure, especially of stone, serving as a pier, breakwater, or causeway. Also: the area of water bounded by or contained within such a structure, especially forming a harbour or port.
3. In Archaeology: A Roman mausoleum of circular form.



fane: (n) 1. A flag, banner, pennant.
2. A weathercock.
3. A temple.
4. A white-flowered Iris.
5. In Scots: An elf, a fairy.



corton: (n) A red Burgundy wine made in the neighbourhood of Beaune, Côte-d'Or.



bodega: (n) A wine-shop in Spain; recently adopted as a specific name for a cellar or shop for the sale of wines only.



cornel: (n) 1. nglish name of the botanical genus Cornus, of which the ancient writers and early herbalists distinguished two ‘sorts’, Cornus mas ‘male cornel’, and C. femina ‘female cornel’. The former was the cornel-tree or cornelian cherry-tree, the tame cornel of Lyte (C. mascula), a large shrub or low tree bearing edible fruit, a native of Southern Europe, sometimes cultivated in Britain; the latter was the cornel-bush, wild or common cornel, or dogwood (C. sanguinea), a common hedge-row shrub in the south of England, of which the berries are not edible. dwarf cornel is a modern book-name of C. suecica, and in N. America of C. canadensis. With other qualifying words the name is sometimes given to other species of Cornus, of which more than twenty are known.
2. The fruit of the Cornel Tree, the Cornelian Cherry or Long Cherry, a fruit of the size and shape of an olive.
3. A javelin or shaft of cornel-wood.



tripos/tripus: (n) 1. A three-legged vessel, seat, or frame; a tripod.
2. Specifically, a vessel of this kind at the shrine of Apollo at Delphi, on which the priestess seated herself to deliver oracles. Hence allusively, the Delphic oracle; any oracle or oracular seat.
3. At Cambridge University: (a) A bachelor of arts appointed to dispute, in a humorous or satirical style, with the candidates for degrees at ‘Commencement’ (corresponding to the TERRÆ FILIUS at Oxford): so called from the three-legged stool on which he sat. (b) A set of humorous verses, originally composed by the ‘Tripos’, and (till 1894) published at Commencement after his office was abolished. (c) The list of candidates qualified for the honour degree in mathematics, originally printed on the back of the paper containing these verses.
4. The final honours examination for the B.A. degree in mathematics, consisting of two parts (formerly first and second tripos, now the Mathematical Tripos, Parts I. and II.); later, extended to the subsequently founded final honours examinations in other subjects (Classical Tripos, Theological Tripos, etc.).



ordure: (n) 1. Excrement, dung.
2. More generally: filth, dirt.
3. That which corrupts, defiles, or fouls morally; obscene language, writing, action, etc.; an instance of this.



chassis: (n) 1. . A wooden frame-work that can be fitted with paper, linen, glass, etc.; a window-frame; sash.
2. A frame upon which an artist's canvas is spread and drawn tight by means of corner-pieces or wedges.
3. The base-frame, forming the lower part of the carriage of a barbette or casemate gun, on which it can be slid backward and forward.
4. The base frame of a motor car, with its mechanism, as distinguished from the body or upper part; also, in an aeroplane.
5. The body of a person or animal.
6. The frame on which the parts of a radio receiver are mounted; also, the assemblage of parts on the frame, excluding the cabinet or housing.



barbette: (n) A platform or mound of earth within a fortification, on which guns are raised so that they can be fired over the parapet. guns en barbette, barbette gun or battery: those so mounted as to fire over the parapet; similarly in ironclad ships.



casemate: (n) 1. A vaulted chamber built in the thickness of the ramparts of a fortress, with embrasures for the defence of the place; a bomb-proof vault, generally under the ramparts of a fortress, used as a barrack, or a battery, or for both purposes; an embrasure.
2. (Nautical) An armoured enclosure for guns in a warship.
3. In Architecture: A hollow moulding, such as the cavetto.



embrasure: (n) 1. A slanting or bevelling in the sides of an opening to a wall for a window or door, so that the inside profile of the window is larger than that of the outside.
2. Military: An opening widening from within made in an epaulement or parapet for the purpose of allowing a gun to be fired through it.
3. A port-hole for the same purpose in a ship.



cavetto: (n) In Architecture: A hollowed moulding, whose profile is the quadrant of a circle. It is principally used in cornices.


gwynhefar: (Default)
similitude: (n) 1. A person or thing resembling, or having the likeness of, some other person or thing; a counterpart or equal; a similarity.
2. The form, likeness, or image of some person or thing.
3. A sign or symbol; the symbolic representation of something.
4. A comparison drawn between two things or facts; the expression of such comparison; a simile.
5. A parable; an allegory.
6. The quality or state of being like; resemblance, similarity, likeness.
7. Likelihood, probability.



heliacal: (adj) 1. In Astronomy: Said of the rising of a star when it first emerges from the sun's rays and becomes visible before sunrise, or of its setting when it is last visible after sunset before being lost in the sun's rays.
2. 'heliacal year', the year reckoned from the heliacal rising of Sirius, the canicular year; great heliacal year, the canicular cycle.
3. Relating to or produced by the sun, solar.



canicular: (adj) 1. 'canicular days': the days immediately preceding and following the heliacal (in modern times, according to some, the cosmical) rising of the dog-star (either Sirius or Procyon), which is about the 11th of August; the 'dog days.'
2. Of or pertaining to the dog-days.
3. 'canicular cycle or period': the ancient Egyptian cycle of 1461 years of 365 days each, or 1460 Julian years, also called the Sothic or Sothiac period; in which time (as was supposed) any given day of the year of 365 days would have passed successively through all the seasons of the natural year (taken as = 365 days);
4. 'canicular year': the ancient Egyptian year, computed from one heliacal rising of Sirius to the next.
5. Humorously: Pertaining to a dog.



achronical/achronychal: (adj) Happening in the evening or at night-fall, vespertine, as the acronychal rising or setting of a star. (Sometimes used as if = Rising in the evening or at sunset and setting at sunrise; but this is not correct. When the rising is acronychal, the setting is cosmical, and vice versâ.)



vespertine: (adj) 1. Of or pertaining to the evening; coming, occurring, or taking place in the evening; specifically in Astrology.
2. Of animals, birds, etc.: Appearing or especially active in the evening.
3. Dim, imperfect.
4. In Astrology and Astronomy: Of a star, planet, etc.: Setting at or just after sunset.
5. In Geology: Used to designate the lowest carboniferous formation of the Pennsylvanian coal-measures.



kist: (n) In Scots and Northern English Dialect:
1. A chest, box, coffer. (In Scots, the specific term for a servant's trunk.)
2. Applied to the ‘ark’ of bulrushes in which Moses was placed; and to Noah's ark.
3. 'kist o' whistles, whustles': an organ.
4. A basket.
5. A chest or place in which money is kept; a treasury; also through transference the store of money itself.
6. A coffin; a stone coffin or sarcophagus.
7. In Archaeology: A sepulchral chest or chamber excavated in rock or formed of stones or hollowed tree-trunks; especially a stone-coffin formed of slabs placed on edge, and covered on the top by one or more horizontal slabs.



foyson/foison: (n) 1. Plenty, abundance, a plentiful supply; a great quantity or number (of persons or things).
2. Plentiful crop or harvest.
3. Inherent vigour or vitality; power, strength, capacity. in plural, Resources.
4. Nourishing power; hence, nourishment, literally and figuratively.



peel: (n) 1. A stake.
2. A palisade or fence formed of stakes; a stockade; a stockaded or palisaded (and often moated) enclosure, freq. as the outer court of a castle or fortified tower; (hence) a fort, tower, or other position defended in this manner. Used historically as the name of the enclosed park surrounding the royal palace of Linlithgow, in Scotland.
3. A castle; especially a small castle or tower.
4. A small fortified (or sometimes moated) tower or dwelling of a type built chiefly in the 16th cent. in the border counties of England and Scotland as a private defence against raiders, in which the ground floor is vaulted and used as a shelter for livestock, while the upper part forms the living quarters, access to which is by a door on the first floor reached by means of a ladder or a movable stair.
5. In Scots: A match; an equal.



gamine: (n) A female gamin; an attractively pert, mischievous or elfish girl or young woman, usually small and slim.



gamin: (n) A neglected boy, left to run about the streets; a street Arab.



brolaghan/brolachan: (n) A shapeless, malevolent supernatural being in Scottish Gaelic folklore.



crotal: (n) 1. (as 'crotalum') A sort of clapper or castanet used in ancient Greece and elsewhere in religious dances.
2. In Irish Antiquity: Applied to a small globular or pear-shaped bell or rattle, the nature and use of which are obscure.
3. A name given in Scotland to various species of lichen used in dyeing (also 'crottle').



car/carr: (n) 1. A pond or pool; a bog or fen; now, usually, wet boggy ground; a meadow recovered by draining from the bog.
2. A fen or bog grown up with low bushes, willows, alders, etc.; a boggy or fenny copse.



tiddy: (adj) Small, very small, tiny.



mool: (n) 1. The soil used to fill a grave; (in plural) grave-clods; (by metonymy) the grave.
2. Mould; earth, soil; a small lump or clod of earth; (in plural) loose or pulverized earth or soil.



quare: (adj) 1. In Irish English: Strange, odd, peculiar, eccentric. Also: of questionable character; suspicious, dubious.
2. In Northern Irish English: As an intensifier: excellent, good in quality or quantity; also 'quare and' = very.



fratch: (v) 1. To make a harsh or strident noise; to creak.
2. To disagree, quarrel, scold.


gwynhefar: (Default)
gorget: (n) 1. A piece of armour for the throat.
2. A collar.
3. An article of female dress, covering the neck and breast; a wimple.
4. An ornament for the neck; a collar of beads, shells, etc.; a necklace.
5. In the Military: A gilt crescent-shaped badge suspended from the neck, and hanging on the breast, formerly worn by officers on duty.
6. In Scots: A kind of pillory.
7. In Zoology: The pouch or sac under the bill of certain sea-birds; a patch of colour on the throat of a bird, insect, etc.



pillory: (n) 1. A device for punishment, usually consisting of a wooden framework mounted on a post, with holes or rings for trapping the head and hands, in which an offender was confined so as to be subjected to public ridicule, abuse, assault, etc.; punishment of this kind.
2. Figuratively: Public abuse, ridicule, or defamation; subjection to abuse, humiliation; a place in which a person or thing is subjected to abuse.



idolomancy: (n) Divination by idols.



phatic: (adj) Of, designating, or relating to speech, utterances, etc., that serve to establish or maintain social relationships rather than to impart information, communicate ideas, etc.; especially in phatic communion (n) : speech communication of this kind; (also) trivial or purely formal verbal contact.



aperture: (n) 1. The process of opening.
2. The opening up of what is involved, intricate, restricted.
3. An opening, an open space between portions of solid matter; a gap, cleft, chasm, or hole; the mouth of the shell of a mollusc.
4. In Optics: The space through which light passes in any optical instrument (though there is no material opening).
5. In Geometry: the inclination, or leaning of one right-line towards another, which meet in a point and make an angle.
6. The opening in the sight of a rifle.



sagamore/sachem: (n) The supreme head or chief of some American Indian tribes.



corrigendum: (n) Something requiring correction; in plural, errors or faults in a printed book, etc., of which the corrections are given.



camarilla: (n) 1. A small chamber.
2. A private cabinet of counsellors; a cabal, clique, junto; a body of secret intriguers.



catlinite: (n) In Mineralogy: The sacred pipe-stone of the American Indians, a kind of indurated red clay occurring in a bed of considerable extent in the region of the Upper Missouri, referred by Hayden to the Cretaceous formation.



indurated: (adj) 1. Of substances: Made hard, hardened (especially in Geology of clay, marl, etc.).
2. Of the heart, feelings, etc.: Rendered callous or stubborn.



marl: (n) 1. An earthy deposit, typically loose and unconsolidated and consisting chiefly of clay mixed with calcium carbonate, formed in prehistoric seas and lakes and long used to improve the texture of sandy or light soil. Also: a calcareous deposit found at the bottom of present-day lakes and rivers, composed of the remains of aquatic plants and animals; With distinguishing word, as an adjective of colour or a word denoting the composition, source, etc.
2. Poetically, Earth, soil; the ground.
3. A brick made from marl.



paramountcy: (n) 1. The condition or status of being paramount; supreme rule or authority; precedence.
2. Specifically, The supremacy of the British Crown as acknowledged by the Indian Princes during the British raj.



gurry: (n) 1. Diarrhœa.
2. A hand-barrow; a small car or sledge.
3. A small native Indian fort.
4. The refuse from ‘cutting-in’ and ‘boiling out’ a whale. Also, fish-offal.
5. 'gurry sore': a kind of boil.



sousveillance: (n) The recording of an activity from the perspective of a participant in the activity, typically by way of small portable or wearable recording devices that often stream continuous live video to the Internet.



fillip: (n) 1. A movement made by bending the last joint of a finger against the thumb and suddenly releasing it (so as to propel some small object, or merely as a gesture); a smart stroke or tap given by this means.
2. Something of small importance; a trifle. Also, a short space of time, a moment.
3. In a wider sense: A smart blow (with the fist, etc.).
4. Something that serves to rouse, excite, or animate; a stimulus.


gwynhefar: (Default)
frid: (n) Supernatural creature or fairy of Scottish Highland folklore who lives in or under rocks and devours all spilled milk or crumbs.



korrigan: (n) The name of a fairy or witch in Breton folklore, noted especially for stealing children.



peerie: (adj) In Scots: Small, diminutive, tiny.



lunder/lunda: (n) A Scandinavian name for the puffin.



lug: (n) 1. A long stick or pole; the branch or limb of a tree.
2. A measure of length: a pole or perch, varying according to local custom; usually of 16 feet, sometimes of 15, 18, 20, or 21 feet
3. One of the flaps or lappets of a cap or bonnet, covering the ears.
4. In Scots: an ear; in other areas the lobe of the ear or a large ugly ear.
5. An object resembling the external ear.
6. The handle of a pitcher, etc. Also technically in various uses, denoting an appendage by which an object may be lifted or suspended
7. The side-wall (of a fire-place or other recess); a (chimney) corner.
8. A demand for borrowed or exacted money.
9. A lower quality of tobacco leaf.
10. Used contemptuously of a person: a lout, a sponger.
11. Something heavy and clumsy.
12. A large marine worm (Arenicola marina) which burrows in the sands of our coasts and is much used for bait.
13. A four-cornered sail, bent upon a yard which is slung at about one-third or one-fourth of its length from one end, and so hangs obliquely.
14. The action of lugging; a rough pull.



sheil: (v) To shell; to take off the husk or outer covering of.



mavis: (n) 1. The song thrush, Turdus philomelos.
2. The brown thrasher, Toxostoma rufum (family Mimidae), a thrush-like songbird of North America.
3. A kind of tobacco.



smoor: (v) 1. To undergo smothering.
2. To conceal or hide; to suppress; to deaden, stupefy, etc.
3. To smother, stifle, suffocate; especially to deprive of life by suffocation.
4. To put out or extinguish (a light or fire). Also in figurative context.



trow: (n) 1. Belief; faith, trust.
2. Fancy, supposition.
3. Faith as pledged, covenant.
4. A name for various kinds of boats or barges: specifically, formerly, on the Severn, a large flat-bottomed sailing barge; in the south of Scotland and north of England, a double canoe or boat used in spearing salmon by torch-light; on the south coast of England, a small flat-bottomed boat used in herring-fishing.
5. Toll, custom; payment for some privilege.
6. A type of troll in Orkney and Shetland.



corrie/corry: (n) The name given in the Scottish Highlands to a more or less circular hollow on a mountain side, surrounded with steep slopes or precipices except at the lowest part, whence a stream usually flows.



sturk: (n) 1. A young bullock or heifer, usually between one and two years old.
2. Used as a term of abuse: a foolish person.



cluricaun: (n) In Irish mythology, an elf having the appearance of a tiny old man.
gwynhefar: (Default)
nictitating: (adj) Winking, blinking.



knowe: (n) In Scots and Northern English dialect: a form of knoll; hillock, rising ground.



cottar: (n) 1. Sometimes used to translate med.L. cotarius, applied in Domesday Book to a villein who occupied a cot or cottage with an attached piece of land (usually 5 acres) held by service of labour (with or without payment in produce or money).
2. In Scots: A peasant who occupies a cot-house or cottage belonging to a farm (sometimes with a plot of land attached), for which he has (or had) to give or provide labour on the farm, at a fixed rate, when required.
3. A peasant, especially in the Highlands, who occupies a cottage and rents a small plot of land under a form of tenure similar to that of the Irish cottier.



halve-net: (n) In Scots: A fishing-net set or held so as to intercept the fish as the tide ebbs.



motte: (n) A large artificial earthen mound with a flattened top, usually surmounted by a fort, castle, etc.



ha-ha: (n) A boundary to a garden, pleasure-ground, or park, of such a kind as not to interrupt the view from within, and not to be seen till closely approached; consisting of a trench, the inner side of which is perpendicular and faced with stone, the outer sloping and turfed; a sunk fence.



kalis: (n) A type of double-edged Filipino sword, often with a "wavy" section.



firlot: (n) In Scots: 1. A measure of capacity for corn, etc., the fourth part of a boll.
2. A certain measure used for other commodities; also, a great quantity.
3. A vessel used to measure a firlot of corn, etc.



boll: (n) A measure of capacity for grain, etc., used in Scotland and the north of England, containing in Scotland generally 6 imperial bushels, but in the north of England varying locally from the ‘old boll’ of 6 bushels to the ‘new boll’ of 2 bushels. Also a measure of weight, containing for flour 10 stone (= 140 pounds).



weise, wise: (n) The stalk or stem of a plant; especially a trailing stem or runner, as of the strawberry.



foyson, foison: (n) 1. Plenty, abundance, a plentiful supply; a great quantity or number (of persons or things).
2. Plentiful crop or harvest.
3. Quasi-adverbally: In abundance.
4. Inherent vigour or vitality; power, strength, capacity. In plural: Resources.
5. Nourishing power; hence, nourishment.



kecksy: (n) A hollow plant-stem.



rick: (n) 1. A stack of hay, corn, peas, etc., esp. one regularly built and thatched; a mow.
2. A heap or pile.


gwynhefar: (Default)
nodus: (n) 1. In Pathology and Medicine: A hard concretion or circumscribed, usually rounded, protuberance, swelling, or mass; a nodule; specifically a localized area of syphilitic periostitis, especially of the tibia.
2. In Mathematics: The base of a numerical system.
3. The centre of a circular mirror used in a form of sundial; a point on the gnomon of a sundial that corresponds to the point on the shadow indicating the time of day, the altitude of the sun, etc.
4. A small bag containing a medicinal preparation or spices, often tied up with a knot.
5. A knotty point, a difficulty, a complication.
6. In Botany and Zoology: A joint of a plant stem; the point on a stem from which a leaf, lateral stem, adventitious root, etc., arises. Also: a joint of the stalk, or point of origin of a branch, of a crinoid, coral, hydroid, etc.



periostitis: (n) In Medicine: Inflammation of the periosteum; an instance of this.



periosteum: (n) In Anatomy: A layer of tissue which envelops the bones (except where they are covered by cartilage), consisting of a very dense, fibrous, and highly vascularized outer layer of areolar connective tissue and an inner layer of undifferentiated cells from which the bone substance is produced; the layer of such tissue covering a particular bone.



ineluctable: (adj) From which one cannot escape by struggling; not to be escaped from.



patrilocal: (adj) Designating or relating to a custom of marriage by which the married couple settles in the husband's home or community.



antimony: (n) 1. One of the elementary bodies, a brittle metallic substance, of bright bluish white colour and flaky crystalline texture. Its metallic characteristics are less pronounced than those of the metals generally; and it forms the fourth member of the natural series nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and some others, which are in different combinations triads and pentads. Symbol Sb (Stibium).
2. In Chemistry: The simple element.
3. with qualifications: arsenical antimony, the mineral Allemontite; gray antimony, the native sulphide of antimony, called as a mineral Stibnite or Antimonite; red antimony, the mineral Kermesite, a compound of the oxide and sulphide; white antimony, antimony trioxide, the mineral Valentinite; sulphurated antimony, the sulphide with a small admixture of the oxide, used in medicine; tartarated antimony, tartar emetic.



werowance: (n) A chief of the Indians of Virginia and Maryland in early colonial days.



endogamy: (n) 1. The custom of marrying only within the limits of a clan or tribe.
2. In Botany: The fusion or coalescence of two or more female gametes.



castor: (n) 1. The beaver.
2. A reddish-brown unctuous substance, having a strong smell and nauseous bitter taste, obtained from two sacs in the inguinal region of the beaver; used in medicine and in perfumery; castoreum.
3. A hat, originally either of beaver's fur, or intended to be taken as such; in the end of the 17th and beginning of 18th c. distinguished from ‘beaver’, and said to be of rabbit's fur; at that time also usually spelt caster.
4. A heavy quality of broadcloth used for overcoats.
5. Glove leather made from goat-skins; it is given a very soft finish of a grey colour.
6. A light drab colour.



porringer: (n) 1. A small bowl or basin, typically with a handle, used for soup, stews, or similar dishes. Also occasionally: the quantity of liquid, etc., that fills or would fill such a vessel.
2. A hat or cap resembling a porringer.



pottage: (n) 1. A thick soup or stew, typically made from vegetables, pulses, meat, etc., boiled in water until soft, and usually seasoned.
2. With reference or allusion to a mess of pottage, for which Esau sold his birthright (Genesis 25:29-34).
3. Oatmeal porridge.
4. In Medicine: A poultice.



parquetry: (n) Inlaid work of blocks of wood arranged in a geometric pattern, especially in furniture and flooring.



calash: (n) 1. A kind of light carriage with low wheels, having a removable folding hood or top. In Canada, a two-wheeled, one-seated vehicle, usually without a cover, with a seat for the driver on the splashboard.
2. The folding hood of such a carriage; also, the hood of a bathing machine, perambulator, etc.
3. A woman's hood made of silk, supported with whalebone or cane hoops, and projecting beyond the face.



epergne: (n) A centre-dish, or centre ornament for the dinner-table, now often in a branched form, each branch supporting a small dish for dessert or the like, or a vase for flowers. (From our quots. it appears that the earlier use was chiefly to hold pickles.)



garniture: (n) 1. Furniture, outfit, appurtenances.
2. Trappings, harness (of horses, etc.).
3. Ornament, trimming, etc., added to dress.
4. Ornament, embellishment generally.
5. Applied to natural objects (as trees, etc.) as ornaments of the landscape.
6. Apparel, costume, dress.
7. Trimming or dressing of a dish.



hornbook: (n) 1. A leaf of paper containing the alphabet (often with the addition of the ten digits, some elements of spelling, and the Lord's Prayer) protected by a thin plate of translucent horn, and mounted on a tablet of wood with a projecting piece for a handle. A simpler and later form of this, consisting of the tablet without the horn covering, or a piece of stiff cardboard varnished, was also called a battledore.
2. A treatise on the rudiments of a subject; a primer.



anthelminthic: (n) A medicine of use against intestinal worms.


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