This may be one of the last of these I get to post using my preferred source, the OED. This is because LSU is losing its subscription to the OED online September 1st, due to budget cuts. This is one of those things that absolutely appalls me.
(Also, the smaller text are the terms that were not on the original list, but were derived by following unfamiliar words that showed up in the definitions themselves. Just so you can see how far such a thread can go.
protend: (v) 1. To cause to project; to put forth, stretch forth; to thrust forward.
2. To stretch forward; to stick out, protrude.
3. To cause to be extended in length, or in one dimension of space; In Geometry: to produce (a line). Passively, to extend, stretch, reach (from one point to another).
4. To increase in magnitude or amount, to enlarge.
5. To extend in duration; to protract, prolong.
6. To portend.
7. In Philosophy: In phenomenology: to extend (the consciousness or perception of a present act or event) into the future.
meson: (n) 1. In Spain, Mexico, and the south-western United States: an inn, a boarding house.
2. In Anatomy, Zoology, and Entomology: The median plane or midline of the body.
3. In Particle Physics: Originally: any of a group of unstable subatomic particles (first found in cosmic rays) which are intermediate in mass between electrons and protons. Now: specifically any such particle that is strongly interacting and has zero or integral spin, certain of which occur in atomic nuclei as transmitters of the binding force between the nucleons.
nucleon: (n) 1. In Biochemistry: A kind of nucleoprotein or phosphoprotein.
2. In Nuclear Physics: A subatomic particle that is a constituent of all atomic nuclei and has a positive charge numerically equal to that of the electron; (in chemical reactions) a hydrogen ion; a proton.
3. A proton or a neutron. Also: specifically a particle of which these may be regarded as two distinct states, differing in isospin.
pyx: (n) 1. In the Christian Church: The vessel or box in which the consecrated bread of the Eucharist is kept.
2. The box or chest at a mint in which specimen coins are deposited to be tested annually. Especially in "trial of the pyx" n. the official trial of the composition, form, and weight of such coins, now conducted annually in the United Kingdom by a jury under the direction of the Queen's Remembrancer.
3. More generally: a box; a casket;
4. A mariner's compass.
5. In Anatomy: The acetabulum.
6. The constellation Pyxis.
acetabulum: (n) 1. In Roman History: A cup to hold condiments, especially vinegar, for serving at the table.
2. measure of capacity for liquids and dry granular substances, equal to one-eighth of a sextary (approx. 70 ml or 2.4 fluid ounces).
3. In Anatomy and Zoology: The cup-shaped joint cavity on the outer side of the hip bone into which the head of the femur fits.
2. Any of the vascular structures by which the endometrium and placenta are attached (in ruminants); a caruncle or a cotyledon.
4. Originally: each of the rounded suckers on the tentacles of many cephalopod molluscs. Later: a ventral sucker in many parasitic flatworms (especially trematodes) used for attachment to the host.
5. In Entomology: The socket or cavity of a joint in an insect.
6. A rounded socket in the base of an echinoderm spine which articulates with a tubercle or mamelon on the test.
7. Any of various plants having a feature likened to a navel; Navelwort.
8. In Mycology: A cup-shaped receptacle occurring in certain kinds of fungus.
sextary: (n) 1. In ancient Rome: a measure of capacity for liquids, equal to one-sixth of a congius (approx. 1.2 pints or 0.5 litres). In the Middle Ages: a large measure for liquid, varying locally between 4 and 6 imperial gallons (18 and 27 litres).
2. In ancient Rome: a measure of capacity for dry substances, equal to one-sixteenth of a modius (1 pint or approx. 0.5 litres). In the Middle Ages: a similar measure of varying capacity, often equated to 2 pounds (or approx. 1 kg).
3. Any one of the six divisions of the city of Venice.
congius: (n) 1. In Roman Antiquity: A measure for liquids, containing the eighth part of a Roman amphora, or about 7 pints.
2. In Pharmacology: The pharmaceutical name for a gallon, represented in prescriptions by the letter C.
amphora: (n) 1. In Classical Antiquities: A two-handled vessel, of various shape, used by the ancients for holding wine, oil, etc.
2. A liquid measure, containing, with the Greeks, about 9 gallons; with the Romans, containing 6 gals. 7 pts., and also called quadrantal.
3. In Botany: Sometimes applied to the lower or permanent part of the capsule called pyxidium, which remains attached to the flower stalk in the form of an urn, as in Hyoscyamus.
pyxidium: (n) In Botany: In a flowering plant: a capsule opening by transverse dehiscence, so that the top comes off like the lid of a box.
modius: (n) 1. In ancient Rome: a measure of corn equal to about a peck (approx. 2 imperial gallons or 9 litres). In the Middle Ages: any of various measures of dry or liquid capacity, often equated with a bushel.
2. In Ancient History: A tall cylindrical headdress of a kind worn by certain deities, as depicted in classical art.
caruncle: (n) 1. A small fleshy excrescence: applied in Anatomy to certain natural formations, as the lachrymal and urethral caruncles, the wattles of the turkey-cock, etc. In Pathology, formerly applied to a stricture.
2. In Botany: An excrescence at or about the hilum of certain seeds.
stricture: (n) 1. In Pathology: A morbid narrowing of a canal, duct, or passage, esp. of the urethra, œsophagus, or intestine.
2. In Phonetics: Partial or complete closure of the air-passage in the articulation of speech sounds.
3. In various occasional uses: The action of binding or encompassing tightly; tight closure; restriction.
4. A spark, flash of light.
5. A touch, slight trace.
6. An incidental remark or comment; now always, an adverse criticism.
hilum: 1. Something very minute.
2. In Botany: The point of attachment of a seed to its seed-vessel; the scar on the ripe seed; A similar mark on a starch-granule; The aperture in the extine of a pollen grain.
3. In Anatomy: Applied also to certain small apertures and depressions.
4. In Pathology: A term for a small flattened staphyloma of the iris from corneal perforation, in consequence of its likeness to the hilum of the garden bean.
5. A little opening in the statoblast of a sponge.
extine: (n) In Botany: The outer membrane of the pollen grain.
staphyloma: (n) Protrusion of the cornea or sclera, resulting from inflammation.
statoblast: (n) A reproductive gemmule developed in some Polyzoa and Sponges and liberated after the death of the parent organism.
gemmule: (n) 1. In Botany: The part of a plant embryo that develops into the shoot system, consisting of the epicotyl and first leaves.
2. One of the reproductive cells of cryptogams.
3. In Zoology: A small gem or gemma; specifically a ciliated embryo of one of the Cœlenterata; an encysted mass of sponge-particles, from which new ones are produced. In Darwin's theory of pangenesis, one of the hypothetical units conceived of as capable of reproducing the part from which it is thrown off.
gemma: (n) 1. In Botany: A leaf-bud as distinguished from a flower-bud.
2. In mosses, liverworts, etc.: A small cellular body which becomes detached from the mother-plant and originates a new one.
3. In Zoology: A bud-like growth upon animals of low organization, which becomes detached and develops into a new individual.
cotyledon: (n) 1. In Physiology: One of the separate patches of villi on the fœtal chorion of Ruminants; also applied to the corresponding vascular portions of the uterine mucous membrane. Formerly applied also to the less separated lobules of the human and other discoid or diffuse placentæ.
2. In Botany: A genus of plants of the family Crassulaceæ, having thick succulent peltate leaves; the British species is C. Vmbilicus, popularly called Navelwort or Pennywort.
3. The primary leaf in the embryo of the higher plants (Phanerogams); the seed-leaf.
chorion: (n) 1. In Anatomy: The outermost membrane enveloping the fœtus before birth.
2. In Botany: The soft and pulpy substance of the primitive nucleus of the seed.
3. In Anatomy: The cutis vera or true skin; corium.
4. Choroid tunic.
corium: (n) 1. In Physiology: The true skin or derma under the epidermis.
2. In Entomology: The leathery or horny basal portion of the wing of a heteropterous insect.
3. In Antiquities: A leathern body-armour formed of overlapping flaps or scales.
heteropterous: (adj) In Entomology: Belonging to a suborder of HEMIPTERA, comprising those insects whose wings consist of dissimilar parts, being coriaceous at the base and membranous at the tip; the true bugs.
coriaceous: (adj) 1. Resembling leather in texture, appearance, etc.; leathery.
2. Made of leather, leathern.
choroid tunic: (n) A vascular membrane lining the eye-ball, between the sclerotic coat and the retina, continuous in front with the iris, and containing numerous dark pigment cells.
peltate: (adj) 1. In Botany and Zoology: Of a leaf: having the petiole joined to the (often more or less circular) blade at or near the middle rather than at the margin. Of other structures: having a similar mode of attachment.
2. In Archaeology: Shaped like a pelta.
pelta: (n) 1. In Classical History: A light shield, typically crescent-shaped but sometimes small and round, associated especially with Thracians and Amazons, but adopted by a number of Greek armies in the late 5th or 4th centuries.
2. In Architecture and Archaeology: An ornamental motif resembling a pelta in shape.
3. In Botany: Any of various shield-like structures, typically either crescent-shaped or having the form of a slightly concave disc; specifically a flat apothecium without an excipulum as found in certain lichens (as the genus Peltigera). Also: a bract or scale attached by the middle like a peltate leaf.
4. In Microbiology: A crescentic microtubular structure associated with the axostyle in certain flagellate protozoans.
apothecium: (n) In Botany: The ‘shield’ or spore-case, containing the fructification in lichens.
excipulum: (n) In Botany: A layer of cells lying beneath and partially enclosing, as a cup, the apothecium in lichens.
axostyle: (n) In Zoology: A slender flexible rod of organic substance forming a supporting axis for the body of many Flagellates.
tubercle: (n) 1. A small tuber or body resembling a tuber.
2. In Anatomy and Zoology: A small rounded projection or protuberance, as on a bone, or on the surface of the body in various animals.
3. In Pathology: A small firm rounded swelling or nodule on the surface of the body or in a part or organ; specifically a mass of granulation-cells characteristic of tuberculosis; through transference, the disease tuberculosis.
4. In Botany: A small tuber, or a root-growth resembling a tuber, as in many orchids.
2. A small wart-like swelling or protuberance on a plant.
mamelon: (n) 1. A rounded eminence or hillock.
2. A small rounded structure; especially in Zoology: the central knob of an echinoid tubercle; in Anatomy: a prominence on the cutting edge of an incisor tooth.
sephiroth: (n) In the philosophy of the Cabbala, the ten hypostatized attributes or emanations by means of which the Infinite enters into relation with the finite.
hypostatize: (v) To make into or treat as a substance.
autophagia: (n) The feeding upon oneself, sustenance of life during the process of starvation by absorption of the tissues of the body.
obtest: (v) 1. To call upon in the name of something sacred; to charge solemnly, adjure; to beg earnestly, beseech, entreat, or implore (a person).
2. To beg earnestly or plead for; to beseech.
3. To affirm solemnly, especially to protest (one's innocence).
4. To call (God, etc.) to witness; to appeal to in confirmation of a statement.
5. To make supplication or entreaty; to beseech or implore; to plead with a person.
6. To call heaven to witness; to protest against.
handsaw: (n) 1. A saw managed by one hand.
2. In "a hawk and a handsaw": handsaw is generally explained as a corruption of heronshaw or hernsew, dialectically harnsa, heron. (Other conjectures taking hawk in a different sense from the bird have also been made.) No other instances of the phrase, (except as quotations from Shakespeare), have been found.
heronshaw: (n) A little or young heron; or just a heron.
caballer: (n) One who cabals or intrigues.
diffide: (v) To want faith or confidence; to have or feel distrust; to distrust (the opposite of confide).
rowel: (n) A small stellar wheel or disk with sharp radial points and capable of rotation, forming the extremity of a spur.
farraginous: (adj) Miscellaneous, indiscriminate, ‘hotchpotch’. Also of a person: That makes a hotch-potch.
ambo: (n) Special name of the pulpit or reading-desk in early Christian churches; an oblong enclosure with steps usually at the two ends.
narthex: (n) In Architecture: A vestibule or antechamber stretching across the western end of some (especially early or Orthodox) Christian churches or basilicas, divided from the nave by a wall, screen, or railing. In the early Church the narthex was sometimes set apart for use by women, catechumens, or penitents.
amice: (n) 1. A cloth for wrapping round, a scarf, handkerchief, or other loose wrap.
2. In Ecclesiastics: An oblong piece of white linen, used in the Western Church in conjunction with the alb, originally enveloping the head and neck, now generally folded so as to lie round the neck and shoulders: often taken to symbolize ‘the helmet of salvation’.
3. Used to render the Roman toga.
4. Used loosely of other garments.
5. An article of costume of the religious orders, made of, or lined with grey fur. It varied at different times in character and mode of wearing, being originally (it is said) a cap or covering for the head; afterwards a hood, or cape with a hood; in later times a mere college ‘hood’ or badge, borne by canons in France on the left arm; The fur of the marten or grey squirrel with which the amice was lined or bordered.